Лицензия для вашего open-source проекта

    В этой статье я хочу немного поговорить об авторском праве и свободных лицензиях на ПО. Текст является результатом самостоятельного выбора лицензий и их применения к своим проектам.

    Статья будет полезна тем, кто хочет:

    — в общих чертах понять, что такое авторское право (но лучше обратиться к юристу);
    — подобрать свободную лицензию для своего проекта;
    — разобраться, что нужно писать в шапке файла исходного кода.

    Первым делом — ссылка на LicenseIT, очень полезный сайт с описанием лицензий и особенностей их применения (в том числе в России), который я умудрился не найти при подготовке статьи. Исправляюсь. Спасибо sensboston за ссылку.


    Авторское право


    Для начала коротко о том, что вообще такое авторское право и лицензии.

    Meanwhile in Russia

    Если вы в качестве результата интеллектуальной деятельности создали некое произведение (например, программу), то в этом случае вы — его автор(ы). Вы обладаете имущественными и неимущественными правами на это произведение. Имущественные права на это произведение вы можете передать и кому-то другому, но передать неимущественные, в том числе авторство, у вас уже не получится. Быть автором — это ваше неотчуждаемое и непередаваемое право.

    Даже если вы при создании произведения работали «на дядю», то и в этом случае автор вовсе не некое абстрактное ООО. Возможно, когда вы устраивались на работу, то подписывали в том числе и пункт про «отчуждение исключительных прав на результаты вашей интеллектуальной деятельности в пользу работодателя» в договоре или что-то подобное. Возможно, нет (в этом случае гуглите "Служебное произведение"). В обоих случаях автор — вы. И обладаете некоторыми правами.

    Лицензии

    Другой способ передачи прав на произведение — лицензия. В этом случае права не отчуждаются, они передаются в соответствии с тем, что прописано в лицензионном договоре между пользователем и правообладателем. Да, лицензия — это именно договор! Все лицензии на ПО, как коммерческие, так и свободные, представляют из себя такой договор. В нем прописано, что вы можете и что не можете делать с ПО, и как далеко вас может послать правообладатель в случае претензий. Например, лицензия может дать вам право устанавливать программу, но ограничивать это право только одним компьютером, иначе к вам приедут дяди в масках и все отберут.

    Обратите внимание на важный момент: если у вас достаточно прав на произведение, то вы можете распространять его под разными лицензиями (в том числе, одновременно). Например, на вашем сайте вы можете распространять программу бесплатно под свободной лицензией, а в каком-либо магазине приложений она может продаваться за деньги под их стандартной лицензией.

    Также Вы можете сменить лицензию в любое время: например, сегодня у вас на сайте программа была бесплатной под свободной лицензией, а завтра она платная и с закрытыми исходниками. Но в этом случае вы не можете заставить пользователей, скачавших программу ранее, следовать нормам новой лицензии. Это логично, ведь они получили программу по другому договору.

    В мире

    В целом, вышеописанное применимо к большинству стран мира. Дело в том, что благодаря нескольким международным конвенциям, законы об авторском праве в мире схожи (но есть и некоторое число стран, не подписывавших конвенции). Однако, даже при этом отличия существуют. Например, в России неимущественные права не отчуждаются. А, скажем, в Канаде можно от них отказаться, но нельзя передать. Поэтому при возможности лучше всегда консультироваться с локальным юристом.

    Свободные лицензии


    Определяем определение

    За поиском определения я отправлю желающих на Википедию, для чего дам ссылки сразу на несколько статей:

    Это не потому, что я такой злой (хотя, велосипед у меня действительно отсутствует), а потому, что для термина свободная лицензия пока нет однозначного определения. Из указанных статей можно вывести примерно следующее:

    Свободной лицензией является лицензия, которая соответствует неким критериям свободного ПО. Обычно используют либо определение свободного ПО, данное Ричардом Столлманом, либо критерии Debian по определению свободного программного обеспечения, сформулированные Брюсом Перенсом. Соответственно, те лицензии, которые не являются свободными — несвободные.

    На мой личный взгляд, заморачиваться с конкретными определениями нет никакого смысла, мы ведь не политики (ну, по крайней мере, я). А с практической точки зрения, основная разница между свободными и несвободными лицензиями — в целях. Несвободные лицензии применяются с целью заработать и не дать на этом заработать конкурентам, свободные — с целью предоставить возможность безвозмездно пользоваться плодами вашего труда.

    Copyleft

    Перед тем как приступить к описанию лицензий, нужно разобраться, что такое копилефтные и разрешительные (пермиссивные, permissive) лицензии. Копилефтными считаются свободные лицензии, требующие распространять производные продукты под такой же лицензией. То есть, если вы использовали в своей программе библиотеку под копилефтной лицензией, то вам придется распространять вашу программу под ней же. Задача же разрешительных лицензий, напротив, разрешить любое возможное использование продукта.

    Основные свободные лицензии

    Большой список свободных лицензий можно найти на сайте GNU.
    Также, sensboston дал ссылку на еще один список с open-source лицензиями.
    Здесь же я приведу список лицензий, в которому будут те лицензии, которые я считаю наиболее полезными и/или значимыми, и те, написать про которые вы предложили в комментариях.

    GPLv3 (GNU General Public License Version 3)
    Текст лицензии
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    copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after
    your receipt of the notice.
    
      Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the
    licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under
    this License.  If your rights have been terminated and not permanently
    reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same
    material under section 10.
    
      9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.
    
      You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or
    run a copy of the Program.  Ancillary propagation of a covered work
    occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission
    to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance.  However,
    nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or
    modify any covered work.  These actions infringe copyright if you do
    not accept this License.  Therefore, by modifying or propagating a
    covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.
    
      10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.
    
      Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically
    receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and
    propagate that work, subject to this License.  You are not responsible
    for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.
    
      An "entity transaction" is a transaction transferring control of an
    organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an
    organization, or merging organizations.  If propagation of a covered
    work results from an entity transaction, each party to that
    transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever
    licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or could
    give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the
    Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if
    the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.
    
      You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the
    rights granted or affirmed under this License.  For example, you may
    not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of
    rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation
    (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that
    any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for
    sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.
    
      11. Patents.
    
      A "contributor" is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this
    License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based.  The
    work thus licensed is called the contributor's "contributor version".
    
      A contributor's "essential patent claims" are all patent claims
    owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or
    hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted
    by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version,
    but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a
    consequence of further modification of the contributor version.  For
    purposes of this definition, "control" includes the right to grant
    patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of
    this License.
    
      Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free
    patent license under the contributor's essential patent claims, to
    make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and
    propagate the contents of its contributor version.
    
      In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is any express
    agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent
    (such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to
    sue for patent infringement).  To "grant" such a patent license to a
    party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a
    patent against the party.
    
      If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license,
    and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone
    to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a
    publicly available network server or other readily accessible means,
    then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so
    available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the
    patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner
    consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent
    license to downstream recipients.  "Knowingly relying" means you have
    actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the
    covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work
    in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that
    country that you have reason to believe are valid.
    
      If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or
    arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a
    covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties
    receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify
    or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license
    you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered
    work and works based on it.
    
      A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within
    the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is
    conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are
    specifically granted under this License.  You may not convey a covered
    work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is
    in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment
    to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying
    the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the
    parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory
    patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work
    conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily
    for and in connection with specific products or compilations that
    contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement,
    or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.
    
      Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting
    any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may
    otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.
    
      12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.
    
      If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
    otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
    excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot convey a
    covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
    License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may
    not convey it at all.  For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you
    to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey
    the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this
    License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.
    
      13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.
    
      Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have
    permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed
    under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single
    combined work, and to convey the resulting work.  The terms of this
    License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work,
    but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License,
    section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the
    combination as such.
    
      14. Revised Versions of this License.
    
      The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of
    the GNU General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions will
    be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
    address new problems or concerns.
    
      Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the
    Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General
    Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the
    option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered
    version or of any later version published by the Free Software
    Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of the
    GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published
    by the Free Software Foundation.
    
      If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future
    versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy's
    public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you
    to choose that version for the Program.
    
      Later license versions may give you additional or different
    permissions.  However, no additional obligations are imposed on any
    author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a
    later version.
    
      15. Disclaimer of Warranty.
    
      THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY
    APPLICABLE LAW.  EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT
    HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY
    OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
    THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
    PURPOSE.  THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM
    IS WITH YOU.  SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF
    ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
    
      16. Limitation of Liability.
    
      IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
    WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS
    THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY
    GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE
    USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF
    DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD
    PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS),
    EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
    SUCH DAMAGES.
    
      17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.
    
      If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided
    above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms,
    reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates
    an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the
    Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a
    copy of the Program in return for a fee.
    
                         END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
    
                How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
    
      If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
    possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
    free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
    
      To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
    to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
    state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
    the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
    
        <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
        Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>
    
        This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
        it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
        the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
        (at your option) any later version.
    
        This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
        but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
        MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
        GNU General Public License for more details.
    
        You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
        along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
    
    Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
    
      If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short
    notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:
    
        <program>  Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>
        This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
        This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
        under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
    
    The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
    parts of the General Public License.  Of course, your program's commands
    might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an "about box".
    
      You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school,
    if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary.
    For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see
    <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
    
      The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program
    into proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library, you
    may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with
    the library.  If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
    Public License instead of this License.  But first, please read
    <http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html>.
    Как применять лицензии GNU со своими программами
    Практическое руководство по соответствию GPL, спасибо Indexator за ссылку.
    GNU GPL 3 человеческим языком, еще раз спасибо Indexator.
    Самая известная из свободных лицензий. Не в том смысле, что все хорошо ее понимают, а в том, что она более всего на слуху. Так как она называется свободной, многие ошибочно считают, что код, выпущенный под GPL, можно использовать как угодно, а программы могут/должны быть только бесплатными. И то, и другое — неправда. GNU GPL — копилефтная лицензия, и требует, чтобы исходные коды производных работ были открытыми под ней же. То есть, если вы решите использовать библиотеку под GPL в вашем проекте, вам придется выложить исходники вашего проекта под GPL, что обычно неприемлемо для коммерческих разработок вам придется бесплатно предоставлять исходники проекта конечным получателям, даже если вы распространяете продукт за деньги (спасибо хабраюзеру coh за указание на неточность). Да, продажа программы лицензией вполне разрешена. Предоставлять исходники можно как вместе с программой, так и отдельно. Во втором случае бинарная версия программы должна содержать четкие инструкции по получению исходных кодов. Более подробные объяснения — перевод части официальногоGPL FAQ(еще раз спасибо, coh !).

    GPLv2 (GNU General Public License Version 2)
    Текст лицензии
                        GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
                           Version 2, June 1991
    
     Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
     51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
    
                                Preamble
    
      The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
    freedom to share and change it.  By contrast, the GNU General Public
    License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
    software--to make sure the software is free for all its users.  This
    General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
    Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
    using it.  (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
    the GNU Lesser General Public License instead.)  You can apply it to
    your programs, too.
    
      When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
    price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
    have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
    this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
    if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
    in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
    
      To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
    anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
    These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
    distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
    
      For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
    gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
    you have.  You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
    source code.  And you must show them these terms so they know their
    rights.
    
      We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
    (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
    distribute and/or modify the software.
    
      Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
    that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
    software.  If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
    want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
    that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
    authors' reputations.
    
      Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
    patents.  We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
    program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
    program proprietary.  To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
    patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
    
      The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
    modification follow.
    
                        GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
       TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
    
      0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
    a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
    under the terms of this General Public License.  The "Program", below,
    refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
    means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
    that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
    either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
    language.  (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
    the term "modification".)  Each licensee is addressed as "you".
    
    Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
    covered by this License; they are outside its scope.  The act of
    running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
    is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
    Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
    Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
    
      1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
    source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
    conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
    copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
    notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
    and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
    along with the Program.
    
    You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
    you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
    
      2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
    of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
    distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
    above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
    
        a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
        stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
    
        b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
        whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
        part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
        parties under the terms of this License.
    
        c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
        when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
        interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
        announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
        notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
        a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
        these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
        License.  (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
        does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
        the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
    
    These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole.  If
    identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
    and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
    themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
    sections when you distribute them as separate works.  But when you
    distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
    on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
    this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
    entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
    
    Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
    your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
    exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
    collective works based on the Program.
    
    In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
    with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
    a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
    the scope of this License.
    
      3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
    under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
    Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
    
        a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
        source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
        1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
    
        b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
        years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
        cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
        machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
        distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
        customarily used for software interchange; or,
    
        c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
        to distribute corresponding source code.  (This alternative is
        allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
        received the program in object code or executable form with such
        an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
    
    The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
    making modifications to it.  For an executable work, complete source
    code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
    associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
    control compilation and installation of the executable.  However, as a
    special exception, the source code distributed need not include
    anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
    form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
    operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
    itself accompanies the executable.
    
    If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
    access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
    access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
    distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
    compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
    
      4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
    except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
    otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
    void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
    However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
    this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
    parties remain in full compliance.
    
      5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
    signed it.  However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
    distribute the Program or its derivative works.  These actions are
    prohibited by law if you do not accept this License.  Therefore, by
    modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
    Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
    all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
    the Program or works based on it.
    
      6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
    Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
    original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
    these terms and conditions.  You may not impose any further
    restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
    You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
    this License.
    
      7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
    infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
    conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
    otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
    excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot
    distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
    License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
    may not distribute the Program at all.  For example, if a patent
    license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
    all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
    the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
    refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
    
    If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
    any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
    apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
    circumstances.
    
    It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
    patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
    such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
    integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
    implemented by public license practices.  Many people have made
    generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
    through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
    system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
    to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
    impose that choice.
    
    This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
    be a consequence of the rest of this License.
    
      8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
    certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
    original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
    may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
    those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
    countries not thus excluded.  In such case, this License incorporates
    the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
    
      9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
    of the General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions will
    be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
    address new problems or concerns.
    
    Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the Program
    specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
    later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
    either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
    Software Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of
    this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
    Foundation.
    
      10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
    programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
    to ask for permission.  For software which is copyrighted by the Free
    Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
    make exceptions for this.  Our decision will be guided by the two goals
    of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
    of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
    
                                NO WARRANTY
    
      11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
    FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW.  EXCEPT WHEN
    OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
    PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
    OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
    MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  THE ENTIRE RISK AS
    TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU.  SHOULD THE
    PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
    REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
    
      12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
    WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
    REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
    INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
    OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
    TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
    YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
    PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
    POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
    
                         END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
    
                How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
    
      If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
    possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
    free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
    
      To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
    to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
    convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
    the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
    
        <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
        Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>
    
        This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
        it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
        the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
        (at your option) any later version.
    
        This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
        but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
        MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
        GNU General Public License for more details.
    
        You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
        with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
        51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
    
    Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
    
    If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
    when it starts in an interactive mode:
    
        Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author
        Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
        This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
        under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
    
    The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
    parts of the General Public License.  Of course, the commands you use may
    be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
    mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
    
    You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
    school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
    necessary.  Here is a sample; alter the names:
    
      Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
      `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
    
      <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
      Ty Coon, President of Vice
    
    This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
    proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library, you may
    consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
    library.  If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
    Public License instead of this License.
    Как применять лицензии GNU со своими программами
    Практическое руководство по соответствию GPL, спасибо Indexator за ссылку.
    Как резонно заметил wholeman в комментариях, не хватает описания GNU GPL версии 2. О различиях между этими двумя версиями GPL можно почитать, например, в этой статье. Также, из комментария wholeman:
    GPLv3 заметно строже и может создать некоторые проблемы автору. Например, одно из требований состоит в том, что должна быть предоставлена инструкция по установке изменённого приложения на устройство. Для приложений под iOS или WindowsPhone, где нет штатной возможности установить пакет не из магазина, выполнить такое требование проблематично.
    Кроме того, стоит заметить, что большинство программ, выпущенных, под GNU GPLv2, позволяют использование на условиях более поздней версии лицензии.

    И, на всякий случай: таблица совместимости лицензий GNU.

    LGPLv3 (GNU Lesser General Public License Version 3, в девичестве GNU Library General Public License)
    Текст лицензии
                       GNU LESSER GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
                           Version 3, 29 June 2007
    
     Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. <http://fsf.org/>
     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
    
    
      This version of the GNU Lesser General Public License incorporates
    the terms and conditions of version 3 of the GNU General Public
    License, supplemented by the additional permissions listed below.
    
      0. Additional Definitions.
    
      As used herein, "this License" refers to version 3 of the GNU Lesser
    General Public License, and the "GNU GPL" refers to version 3 of the GNU
    General Public License.
    
      "The Library" refers to a covered work governed by this License,
    other than an Application or a Combined Work as defined below.
    
      An "Application" is any work that makes use of an interface provided
    by the Library, but which is not otherwise based on the Library.
    Defining a subclass of a class defined by the Library is deemed a mode
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      A "Combined Work" is a work produced by combining or linking an
    Application with the Library.  The particular version of the Library
    with which the Combined Work was made is also called the "Linked
    Version".
    
      The "Minimal Corresponding Source" for a Combined Work means the
    Corresponding Source for the Combined Work, excluding any source code
    for portions of the Combined Work that, considered in isolation, are
    based on the Application, and not on the Linked Version.
    
      The "Corresponding Application Code" for a Combined Work means the
    object code and/or source code for the Application, including any data
    and utility programs needed for reproducing the Combined Work from the
    Application, but excluding the System Libraries of the Combined Work.
    
      1. Exception to Section 3 of the GNU GPL.
    
      You may convey a covered work under sections 3 and 4 of this License
    without being bound by section 3 of the GNU GPL.
    
      2. Conveying Modified Versions.
    
      If you modify a copy of the Library, and, in your modifications, a
    facility refers to a function or data to be supplied by an Application
    that uses the facility (other than as an argument passed when the
    facility is invoked), then you may convey a copy of the modified
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       a) under this License, provided that you make a good faith effort to
       ensure that, in the event an Application does not supply the
       function or data, the facility still operates, and performs
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       b) under the GNU GPL, with none of the additional permissions of
       this License applicable to that copy.
    
      3. Object Code Incorporating Material from Library Header Files.
    
      The object code form of an Application may incorporate material from
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       a) Give prominent notice with each copy of the object code that the
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       b) Accompany the object code with a copy of the GNU GPL and this license
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      4. Combined Works.
    
      You may convey a Combined Work under terms of your choice that,
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       a) Give prominent notice with each copy of the Combined Work that
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       b) Accompany the Combined Work with a copy of the GNU GPL and this license
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       c) For a Combined Work that displays copyright notices during
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       d) Do one of the following:
    
           0) Convey the Minimal Corresponding Source under the terms of this
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           1) Use a suitable shared library mechanism for linking with the
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       e) Provide Installation Information, but only if you would otherwise
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       Application with a modified version of the Linked Version. (If
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       Information in the manner specified by section 6 of the GNU GPL
       for conveying Corresponding Source.)
    
      5. Combined Libraries.
    
      You may place library facilities that are a work based on the
    Library side by side in a single library together with other library
    facilities that are not Applications and are not covered by this
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       a) Accompany the combined library with a copy of the same work based
       on the Library, uncombined with any other library facilities,
       conveyed under the terms of this License.
    
       b) Give prominent notice with the combined library that part of it
       is a work based on the Library, and explaining where to find the
       accompanying uncombined form of the same work.
    
      6. Revised Versions of the GNU Lesser General Public License.
    
      The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
    of the GNU Lesser General Public License from time to time. Such new
    versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
    differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.
    
      Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the
    Library as you received it specifies that a certain numbered version
    of the GNU Lesser General Public License "or any later version"
    applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and
    conditions either of that published version or of any later version
    published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Library as you
    received it does not specify a version number of the GNU Lesser
    General Public License, you may choose any version of the GNU Lesser
    General Public License ever published by the Free Software Foundation.
    
      If the Library as you received it specifies that a proxy can decide
    whether future versions of the GNU Lesser General Public License shall
    apply, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of any version is
    permanent authorization for you to choose that version for the
    Library.
    Как применять лицензии GNU со своими программами
    LGPL — это надстройка над GPL, и требует наличия текстов обеих лицензий в проекте. Отличие LGPL от обычной GPL заключается в том, что библиотеки под этой лицензией разрешается использовать для создания программ под другими лицензиями путем компоновки. Согласно GNU FAQ, динамическая компоновка не требует открывать исходные коды, а при статической необходимо предоставлять вашу программу в объектной форме (исходные коды не обязательны), для того чтобы пользователь мог сам изменить библиотеку и перелинковать бинарник. Впрочем, как заметил Athari, это не было обосновано в суде. GNU рекомендует применять эту лицензию только в том случае, если применение вместо нее обычной GPL приведет к тому, что библиотеку перестанут использовать, заменив на аналогичную.

    GNU AGPLv3 (GNU Affero, GNU Affero General Public License Version 3)
    Текст лицензии
                        GNU AFFERO GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
                           Version 3, 19 November 2007
    
     Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. <http://fsf.org/>
     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
    
                                Preamble
    
      The GNU Affero General Public License is a free, copyleft license for
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      When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
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      Developers that use our General Public Licenses protect your rights
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      A secondary benefit of defending all users' freedom is that
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    The GNU General Public License permits making a modified version and
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      The GNU Affero General Public License is designed specifically to
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      An older license, called the Affero General Public License and
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      The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
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      All other non-permissive additional terms are considered "further
    restrictions" within the meaning of section 10.  If the Program as you
    received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is
    governed by this License along with a term that is a further
    restriction, you may remove that term.  If a license document contains
    a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this
    License, you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms
    of that license document, provided that the further restriction does
    not survive such relicensing or conveying.
    
      If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you
    must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the
    additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating
    where to find the applicable terms.
    
      Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the
    form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions;
    the above requirements apply either way.
    
      8. Termination.
    
      You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly
    provided under this License.  Any attempt otherwise to propagate or
    modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under
    this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third
    paragraph of section 11).
    
      However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
    license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
    provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and
    finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright
    holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means
    prior to 60 days after the cessation.
    
      Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
    reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
    violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
    received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that
    copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after
    your receipt of the notice.
    
      Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the
    licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under
    this License.  If your rights have been terminated and not permanently
    reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same
    material under section 10.
    
      9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.
    
      You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or
    run a copy of the Program.  Ancillary propagation of a covered work
    occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission
    to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance.  However,
    nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or
    modify any covered work.  These actions infringe copyright if you do
    not accept this License.  Therefore, by modifying or propagating a
    covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.
    
      10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.
    
      Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically
    receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and
    propagate that work, subject to this License.  You are not responsible
    for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.
    
      An "entity transaction" is a transaction transferring control of an
    organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an
    organization, or merging organizations.  If propagation of a covered
    work results from an entity transaction, each party to that
    transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever
    licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or could
    give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the
    Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if
    the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.
    
      You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the
    rights granted or affirmed under this License.  For example, you may
    not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of
    rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation
    (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that
    any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for
    sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.
    
      11. Patents.
    
      A "contributor" is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this
    License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based.  The
    work thus licensed is called the contributor's "contributor version".
    
      A contributor's "essential patent claims" are all patent claims
    owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or
    hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted
    by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version,
    but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a
    consequence of further modification of the contributor version.  For
    purposes of this definition, "control" includes the right to grant
    patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of
    this License.
    
      Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free
    patent license under the contributor's essential patent claims, to
    make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and
    propagate the contents of its contributor version.
    
      In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is any express
    agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent
    (such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to
    sue for patent infringement).  To "grant" such a patent license to a
    party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a
    patent against the party.
    
      If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license,
    and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone
    to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a
    publicly available network server or other readily accessible means,
    then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so
    available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the
    patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner
    consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent
    license to downstream recipients.  "Knowingly relying" means you have
    actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the
    covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work
    in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that
    country that you have reason to believe are valid.
    
      If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or
    arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a
    covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties
    receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify
    or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license
    you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered
    work and works based on it.
    
      A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within
    the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is
    conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are
    specifically granted under this License.  You may not convey a covered
    work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is
    in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment
    to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying
    the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the
    parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory
    patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work
    conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily
    for and in connection with specific products or compilations that
    contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement,
    or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.
    
      Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting
    any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may
    otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.
    
      12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.
    
      If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
    otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
    excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot convey a
    covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
    License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may
    not convey it at all.  For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you
    to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey
    the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this
    License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.
    
      13. Remote Network Interaction; Use with the GNU General Public License.
    
      Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, if you modify the
    Program, your modified version must prominently offer all users
    interacting with it remotely through a computer network (if your version
    supports such interaction) an opportunity to receive the Corresponding
    Source of your version by providing access to the Corresponding Source
    from a network server at no charge, through some standard or customary
    means of facilitating copying of software.  This Corresponding Source
    shall include the Corresponding Source for any work covered by version 3
    of the GNU General Public License that is incorporated pursuant to the
    following paragraph.
    
      Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have
    permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed
    under version 3 of the GNU General Public License into a single
    combined work, and to convey the resulting work.  The terms of this
    License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work,
    but the work with which it is combined will remain governed by version
    3 of the GNU General Public License.
    
      14. Revised Versions of this License.
    
      The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of
    the GNU Affero General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions
    will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
    address new problems or concerns.
    
      Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the
    Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU Affero General
    Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the
    option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered
    version or of any later version published by the Free Software
    Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of the
    GNU Affero General Public License, you may choose any version ever published
    by the Free Software Foundation.
    
      If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future
    versions of the GNU Affero General Public License can be used, that proxy's
    public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you
    to choose that version for the Program.
    
      Later license versions may give you additional or different
    permissions.  However, no additional obligations are imposed on any
    author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a
    later version.
    
      15. Disclaimer of Warranty.
    
      THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY
    APPLICABLE LAW.  EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT
    HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY
    OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
    THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
    PURPOSE.  THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM
    IS WITH YOU.  SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF
    ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
    
      16. Limitation of Liability.
    
      IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
    WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS
    THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY
    GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE
    USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF
    DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD
    PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS),
    EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
    SUCH DAMAGES.
    
      17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.
    
      If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided
    above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms,
    reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates
    an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the
    Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a
    copy of the Program in return for a fee.
    
                         END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
    
                How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
    
      If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
    possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
    free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
    
      To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
    to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
    state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
    the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
    
        <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
        Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>
    
        This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
        it under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as published by
        the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
        (at your option) any later version.
    
        This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
        but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
        MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
        GNU Affero General Public License for more details.
    
        You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
        along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
    
    Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
    
      If your software can interact with users remotely through a computer
    network, you should also make sure that it provides a way for users to
    get its source.  For example, if your program is a web application, its
    interface could display a "Source" link that leads users to an archive
    of the code.  There are many ways you could offer source, and different
    solutions will be better for different programs; see section 13 for the
    specific requirements.
    
      You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school,
    if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary.
    For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU AGPL, see
    <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
    Как применять лицензии GNU со своими программами
    Спасибо coh и lorus за то, что о ней вспомнили. Это копилефтная лицензия.

    Цитируя Различные лицензии и комментарии к ним:
    Ее условия фактически состоят из условий GPLv3 с дополнительным параграфом в разделе 13, который позволяет пользователям, взаимодействующим с лицензируемой программой по сети, получать исходный текст этой программы. Мы рекомендуем разработчикам подумать о применении GNU AGPL для любых программ, которые обычно выполняются в сети.
    Есть определенные нюансы совместимости с другими версиями GPL:
    Обратите внимание, что GNU AGPL не совместима с GPLv2. Она также формально не совместима с GPLv3 в узком смысле: вы не можете взять исходные тексты, выпущенные на условиях GNU AGPL, и передавать или изменять их, как вам угодно, на условиях GPLv3, и наоборот. Однако вам позволено комбинировать раздельные модули или файлы исходного текста, выпущенные под обеими этими лицензиями, в едином проекте, что предоставит многим программистам разрешение на все действия, нужные им для того, чтобы делать какие им угодно программы.

    MPL v2.0 (Mozilla Public License
    Version 2.0)
    Текст лицензии
    Mozilla Public License
    Version 2.0
    1. Definitions
    
    1.1. “Contributor”
    
        means each individual or legal entity that creates, contributes to
    the creation of, or owns Covered Software.  1.2. “Contributor Version”
    
        means the combination of the Contributions of others (if any) used
    by a Contributor and that particular Contributor’s Contribution.
    1.3. “Contribution”
    
        means Covered Software of a particular Contributor.  1.4. “Covered
    Software”
    
        means Source Code Form to which the initial Contributor has
    attached the notice in Exhibit A, the Executable Form of such Source
    Code Form, and Modifications of such Source Code Form, in each case
    including portions thereof.  1.5. “Incompatible With Secondary
    Licenses”
    
        means
    
            that the initial Contributor has attached the notice described
            in Exhibit B to the Covered Software; or
    
            that the Covered Software was made available under the terms
            of version 1.1 or earlier of the License, but not also under
            the terms of a Secondary License.
    
    1.6. “Executable Form”
    
        means any form of the work other than Source Code Form.
    1.7. “Larger Work”
    
        means a work that combines Covered Software with other material,
    in a separate file or files, that is not Covered Software.
    1.8. “License”
    
        means this document.
    1.9. “Licensable”
    
        means having the right to grant, to the maximum extent possible,
    whether at the time of the initial grant or subsequently, any and all
    of the rights conveyed by this License.  1.10. “Modifications”
    
        means any of the following:
    
            any file in Source Code Form that results from an addition to,
            deletion from, or modification of the contents of Covered
            Software; or
    
            any new file in Source Code Form that contains any Covered Software.
    
    1.11. “Patent Claims” of a Contributor
    
        means any patent claim(s), including without limitation, method,
    process, and apparatus claims, in any patent Licensable by such
    Contributor that would be infringed, but for the grant of the License,
    by the making, using, selling, offering for sale, having made, import,
    or transfer of either its Contributions or its Contributor Version.
    1.12. “Secondary License”
    
        means either the GNU General Public License, Version 2.0, the GNU
    Lesser General Public License, Version 2.1, the GNU Affero General
    Public License, Version 3.0, or any later versions of those licenses.
    1.13. “Source Code Form”
    
        means the form of the work preferred for making modifications.
    1.14. “You” (or “Your”)
    
        means an individual or a legal entity exercising rights under this
        License. For legal entities, “You” includes any entity that
        controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with
        You. For purposes of this definition, “control” means (a) the
        power, direct or indirect, to cause the direction or management of
        such entity, whether by contract or otherwise, or (b) ownership of
        more than fifty percent (50%) of the outstanding shares or
        beneficial ownership of such entity.
    
    2. License Grants and Conditions
    2.1. Grants
    
    Each Contributor hereby grants You a world-wide, royalty-free,
    non-exclusive license:
    
        under intellectual property rights (other than patent or
        trademark) Licensable by such Contributor to use, reproduce, make
        available, modify, display, perform, distribute, and otherwise
        exploit its Contributions, either on an unmodified basis, with
        Modifications, or as part of a Larger Work; and
    
        under Patent Claims of such Contributor to make, use, sell, offer
        for sale, have made, import, and otherwise transfer either its
        Contributions or its Contributor Version.
    
    2.2. Effective Date
    
    The licenses granted in Section 2.1 with respect to any Contribution
    become effective for each Contribution on the date the Contributor
    first distributes such Contribution.  2.3. Limitations on Grant Scope
    
    The licenses granted in this Section 2 are the only rights granted
    under this License. No additional rights or licenses will be implied
    from the distribution or licensing of Covered Software under this
    License. Notwithstanding Section 2.1(b) above, no patent license is
    granted by a Contributor:
    
        for any code that a Contributor has removed from Covered Software; or
    
        for infringements caused by: (i) Your and any other third party’s
        modifications of Covered Software, or (ii) the combination of its
        Contributions with other software (except as part of its
        Contributor Version); or
    
        under Patent Claims infringed by Covered Software in the absence
        of its Contributions.
    
    This License does not grant any rights in the trademarks, service
    marks, or logos of any Contributor (except as may be necessary to
    comply with the notice requirements in Section 3.4).  2.4. Subsequent
    Licenses
    
    No Contributor makes additional grants as a result of Your choice to
    distribute the Covered Software under a subsequent version of this
    License (see Section 10.2) or under the terms of a Secondary License
    (if permitted under the terms of Section 3.3).  2.5. Representation
    
    Each Contributor represents that the Contributor believes its
    Contributions are its original creation(s) or it has sufficient rights
    to grant the rights to its Contributions conveyed by this License.
    2.6. Fair Use
    
    This License is not intended to limit any rights You have under
    applicable copyright doctrines of fair use, fair dealing, or other
    equivalents.  2.7. Conditions
    
    Sections 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4 are conditions of the licenses granted
    in Section 2.1.  3. Responsibilities 3.1. Distribution of Source Form
    
    All distribution of Covered Software in Source Code Form, including
    any Modifications that You create or to which You contribute, must be
    under the terms of this License. You must inform recipients that the
    Source Code Form of the Covered Software is governed by the terms of
    this License, and how they can obtain a copy of this License. You may
    not attempt to alter or restrict the recipients’ rights in the Source
    Code Form.  3.2. Distribution of Executable Form
    
    If You distribute Covered Software in Executable Form then:
    
        such Covered Software must also be made available in Source Code
        Form, as described in Section 3.1, and You must inform recipients
        of the Executable Form how they can obtain a copy of such Source
        Code Form by reasonable means in a timely manner, at a charge no
        more than the cost of distribution to the recipient; and
    
        You may distribute such Executable Form under the terms of this
        License, or sublicense it under different terms, provided that the
        license for the Executable Form does not attempt to limit or alter
        the recipients’ rights in the Source Code Form under this License.
    
    3.3. Distribution of a Larger Work
    
    You may create and distribute a Larger Work under terms of Your
    choice, provided that You also comply with the requirements of this
    License for the Covered Software. If the Larger Work is a combination
    of Covered Software with a work governed by one or more Secondary
    Licenses, and the Covered Software is not Incompatible With Secondary
    Licenses, this License permits You to additionally distribute such
    Covered Software under the terms of such Secondary License(s), so that
    the recipient of the Larger Work may, at their option, further
    distribute the Covered Software under the terms of either this License
    or such Secondary License(s).  3.4. Notices
    
    You may not remove or alter the substance of any license notices
    (including copyright notices, patent notices, disclaimers of warranty,
    or limitations of liability) contained within the Source Code Form of
    the Covered Software, except that You may alter any license notices to
    the extent required to remedy known factual inaccuracies.
    3.5. Application of Additional Terms
    
    You may choose to offer, and to charge a fee for, warranty, support,
    indemnity or liability obligations to one or more recipients of
    Covered Software. However, You may do so only on Your own behalf, and
    not on behalf of any Contributor. You must make it absolutely clear
    that any such warranty, support, indemnity, or liability obligation is
    offered by You alone, and You hereby agree to indemnify every
    Contributor for any liability incurred by such Contributor as a result
    of warranty, support, indemnity or liability terms You offer. You may
    include additional disclaimers of warranty and limitations of
    liability specific to any jurisdiction.  4. Inability to Comply Due to
    Statute or Regulation
    
    If it is impossible for You to comply with any of the terms of this
    License with respect to some or all of the Covered Software due to
    statute, judicial order, or regulation then You must: (a) comply with
    the terms of this License to the maximum extent possible; and (b)
    describe the limitations and the code they affect. Such description
    must be placed in a text file included with all distributions of the
    Covered Software under this License. Except to the extent prohibited
    by statute or regulation, such description must be sufficiently
    detailed for a recipient of ordinary skill to be able to understand
    it.  5. Termination
    
    5.1. The rights granted under this License will terminate
    automatically if You fail to comply with any of its terms. However, if
    You become compliant, then the rights granted under this License from
    a particular Contributor are reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and
    until such Contributor explicitly and finally terminates Your grants,
    and (b) on an ongoing basis, if such Contributor fails to notify You
    of the non-compliance by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after
    You have come back into compliance. Moreover, Your grants from a
    particular Contributor are reinstated on an ongoing basis if such
    Contributor notifies You of the non-compliance by some reasonable
    means, this is the first time You have received notice of
    non-compliance with this License from such Contributor, and You become
    compliant prior to 30 days after Your receipt of the notice.
    
    5.2. If You initiate litigation against any entity by asserting a
    patent infringement claim (excluding declaratory judgment actions,
    counter-claims, and cross-claims) alleging that a Contributor Version
    directly or indirectly infringes any patent, then the rights granted
    to You by any and all Contributors for the Covered Software under
    Section 2.1 of this License shall terminate.
    
    5.3. In the event of termination under Sections 5.1 or 5.2 above, all
    end user license agreements (excluding distributors and resellers)
    which have been validly granted by You or Your distributors under this
    License prior to termination shall survive termination.  6. Disclaimer
    of Warranty
    
    Covered Software is provided under this License on an “as is” basis,
    without warranty of any kind, either expressed, implied, or statutory,
    including, without limitation, warranties that the Covered Software is
    free of defects, merchantable, fit for a particular purpose or
    non-infringing. The entire risk as to the quality and performance of
    the Covered Software is with You. Should any Covered Software prove
    defective in any respect, You (not any Contributor) assume the cost of
    any necessary servicing, repair, or correction. This disclaimer of
    warranty constitutes an essential part of this License. No use of any
    Covered Software is authorized under this License except under this
    disclaimer.  7. Limitation of Liability
    
    Under no circumstances and under no legal theory, whether tort
    (including negligence), contract, or otherwise, shall any Contributor,
    or anyone who distributes Covered Software as permitted above, be
    liable to You for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or
    consequential damages of any character including, without limitation,
    damages for lost profits, loss of goodwill, work stoppage, computer
    failure or malfunction, or any and all other commercial damages or
    losses, even if such party shall have been informed of the possibility
    of such damages. This limitation of liability shall not apply to
    liability for death or personal injury resulting from such party’s
    negligence to the extent applicable law prohibits such
    limitation. Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion or
    limitation of incidental or consequential damages, so this exclusion
    and limitation may not apply to You.  8. Litigation
    
    Any litigation relating to this License may be brought only in the
    courts of a jurisdiction where the defendant maintains its principal
    place of business and such litigation shall be governed by laws of
    that jurisdiction, without reference to its conflict-of-law
    provisions. Nothing in this Section shall prevent a party’s ability to
    bring cross-claims or counter-claims.  9. Miscellaneous
    
    This License represents the complete agreement concerning the subject
    matter hereof. If any provision of this License is held to be
    unenforceable, such provision shall be reformed only to the extent
    necessary to make it enforceable. Any law or regulation which provides
    that the language of a contract shall be construed against the drafter
    shall not be used to construe this License against a Contributor.
    10. Versions of the License 10.1. New Versions
    
    Mozilla Foundation is the license steward. Except as provided in
    Section 10.3, no one other than the license steward has the right to
    modify or publish new versions of this License. Each version will be
    given a distinguishing version number.  10.2. Effect of New Versions
    
    You may distribute the Covered Software under the terms of the version
    of the License under which You originally received the Covered
    Software, or under the terms of any subsequent version published by
    the license steward.  10.3. Modified Versions
    
    If you create software not governed by this License, and you want to
    create a new license for such software, you may create and use a
    modified version of this License if you rename the license and remove
    any references to the name of the license steward (except to note that
    such modified license differs from this License).  10.4. Distributing
    Source Code Form that is Incompatible With Secondary Licenses
    
    If You choose to distribute Source Code Form that is Incompatible With
    Secondary Licenses under the terms of this version of the License, the
    notice described in Exhibit B of this License must be attached.
    Exhibit A - Source Code Form License Notice
    
        This Source Code Form is subject to the terms of the Mozilla
        Public License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the MPL was not distributed
        with this file, You can obtain one at http://mozilla.org/MPL/2.0/.
    
    If it is not possible or desirable to put the notice in a particular
    file, then You may include the notice in a location (such as a LICENSE
    file in a relevant directory) where a recipient would be likely to
    look for such a notice.
    
    You may add additional accurate notices of copyright ownership.
    Exhibit B - “Incompatible With Secondary Licenses” Notice
    
        This Source Code Form is “Incompatible With Secondary Licenses”,
        as defined by the Mozilla Public License, v. 2.0.
    Комментарий от lorus
    Для проекта open source стоит ещё рассмотреть MPL 2.0. Своеобразная лицензия, что-то среднее между LGPL и BSD. От LGPL отличается отсутствием заморочек со статическим связыванием. Это может оказаться важным для программ на ЯП, в которых динамическое связывание не предусмотрено.
    В случае использования неизмененной библиотеки под MPL 2.0, как части большего проекта, нужно всего лишь указывать, где можно получить исходники этой библиотеки. Но если вы все же меняете код, то обязаны предоставить доступ к измененному вами коду под все той же MPL 2.0. То есть, лицензия копилефтная. Здесь небольшое уточнение от Athari:
    Лицензией MPL заражаются файлы, а не проекты, в отличие от (L)GPL. Если изменить файл, он должен остаться под MPL. Если добавить — ограничений нет.
    В случае, если проект под GNU GPL, то необходимо сделать используемый в нем код под MPL 2.0 доступным сразу под обеими лицензиями.

    Для использования этой лицензии в вашем проекте нужно добавить текст из Exhibit A лицензии
    This Source Code Form is subject to the terms of the Mozilla
    Public License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the MPL was not distributed
    with this file, You can obtain one at http://mozilla.org/MPL/2.0/.
    в качестве шапки в каждый файл исходного кода. Лицензия не требует указывать copyright в каждом файле, но и не запрещает этого. Также не забудьте добавить в проект файл LICENSE с текстом лицензии.

    EPL-1.0 (Eclipse Public License Version 1.0)
    Текст лицензии
    Eclipse Public License - v 1.0
    
    THE ACCOMPANYING PROGRAM IS PROVIDED UNDER THE TERMS OF THIS ECLIPSE
    PUBLIC LICENSE ("AGREEMENT"). ANY USE, REPRODUCTION OR DISTRIBUTION OF
    THE PROGRAM CONSTITUTES RECIPIENT'S ACCEPTANCE OF THIS AGREEMENT.
    
    1. DEFINITIONS
    
    "Contribution" means:
    
      a) in the case of the initial Contributor, the initial code and
         documentation distributed under this Agreement, and
    
      b) in the case of each subsequent Contributor:
    
        i) changes to the Program, and
    
        ii) additions to the Program;
    
    where such changes and/or additions to the Program originate from and
    are distributed by that particular Contributor. A Contribution
    'originates' from a Contributor if it was added to the Program by such
    Contributor itself or anyone acting on such Contributor's
    behalf. Contributions do not include additions to the Program which:
    (i) are separate modules of software distributed in conjunction with
    the Program under their own license agreement, and (ii) are not
    derivative works of the Program.
    
    "Contributor" means any person or entity that distributes the Program.
    
    "Licensed Patents" mean patent claims licensable by a Contributor
    which are necessarily infringed by the use or sale of its Contribution
    alone or when combined with the Program.
    
    "Program" means the Contributions distributed in accordance with this
    Agreement.
    
    "Recipient" means anyone who receives the Program under this
    Agreement, including all Contributors.
    
    2. GRANT OF RIGHTS
    
      a) Subject to the terms of this Agreement, each Contributor hereby
         grants Recipient a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free
         copyright license to reproduce, prepare derivative works of,
         publicly display, publicly perform, distribute and sublicense the
         Contribution of such Contributor, if any, and such derivative
         works, in source code and object code form.
    
      b) Subject to the terms of this Agreement, each Contributor hereby
         grants Recipient a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent
         license under Licensed Patents to make, use, sell, offer to sell,
         import and otherwise transfer the Contribution of such
         Contributor, if any, in source code and object code form. This
         patent license shall apply to the combination of the Contribution
         and the Program if, at the time the Contribution is added by the
         Contributor, such addition of the Contribution causes such
         combination to be covered by the Licensed Patents. The patent
         license shall not apply to any other combinations which include
         the Contribution. No hardware per se is licensed hereunder.
    
      c) Recipient understands that although each Contributor grants the
         licenses to its Contributions set forth herein, no assurances are
         provided by any Contributor that the Program does not infringe
         the patent or other intellectual property rights of any other
         entity. Each Contributor disclaims any liability to Recipient for
         claims brought by any other entity based on infringement of
         intellectual property rights or otherwise. As a condition to
         exercising the rights and licenses granted hereunder, each
         Recipient hereby assumes sole responsibility to secure any other
         intellectual property rights needed, if any. For example, if a
         third party patent license is required to allow Recipient to
         distribute the Program, it is Recipient's responsibility to
         acquire that license before distributing the Program.
    
      d) Each Contributor represents that to its knowledge it has
         sufficient copyright rights in its Contribution, if any, to grant
         the copyright license set forth in this Agreement.
    
    3. REQUIREMENTS
    
    A Contributor may choose to distribute the Program in object code form
    under its own license agreement, provided that:
    
      a) it complies with the terms and conditions of this Agreement; and
    
      b) its license agreement:
    
        i) effectively disclaims on behalf of all Contributors all
           warranties and conditions, express and implied, including
           warranties or conditions of title and non-infringement, and
           implied warranties or conditions of merchantability and fitness
           for a particular purpose;
    
        ii) effectively excludes on behalf of all Contributors all
            liability for damages, including direct, indirect, special,
            incidental and consequential damages, such as lost profits;
    
        iii) states that any provisions which differ from this Agreement
             are offered by that Contributor alone and not by any other
             party; and
    
        iv) states that source code for the Program is available from such
            Contributor, and informs licensees how to obtain it in a
            reasonable manner on or through a medium customarily used for
            software exchange.
    
    When the Program is made available in source code form:
    
      a) it must be made available under this Agreement; and
    
      b) a copy of this Agreement must be included with each copy of the Program.
    
    Contributors may not remove or alter any copyright notices contained
    within the Program.
    
    Each Contributor must identify itself as the originator of its
    Contribution, if any, in a manner that reasonably allows subsequent
    Recipients to identify the originator of the Contribution.
    
    4. COMMERCIAL DISTRIBUTION
    
    Commercial distributors of software may accept certain
    responsibilities with respect to end users, business partners and the
    like. While this license is intended to facilitate the commercial use
    of the Program, the Contributor who includes the Program in a
    commercial product offering should do so in a manner which does not
    create potential liability for other Contributors. Therefore, if a
    Contributor includes the Program in a commercial product offering,
    such Contributor ("Commercial Contributor") hereby agrees to defend
    and indemnify every other Contributor ("Indemnified Contributor")
    against any losses, damages and costs (collectively "Losses") arising
    from claims, lawsuits and other legal actions brought by a third party
    against the Indemnified Contributor to the extent caused by the acts
    or omissions of such Commercial Contributor in connection with its
    distribution of the Program in a commercial product offering. The
    obligations in this section do not apply to any claims or Losses
    relating to any actual or alleged intellectual property
    infringement. In order to qualify, an Indemnified Contributor must: a)
    promptly notify the Commercial Contributor in writing of such claim,
    and b) allow the Commercial Contributor to control, and cooperate with
    the Commercial Contributor in, the defense and any related settlement
    negotiations. The Indemnified Contributor may participate in any such
    claim at its own expense.
    
    For example, a Contributor might include the Program in a commercial
    product offering, Product X. That Contributor is then a Commercial
    Contributor. If that Commercial Contributor then makes performance
    claims, or offers warranties related to Product X, those performance
    claims and warranties are such Commercial Contributor's responsibility
    alone. Under this section, the Commercial Contributor would have to
    defend claims against the other Contributors related to those
    performance claims and warranties, and if a court requires any other
    Contributor to pay any damages as a result, the Commercial Contributor
    must pay those damages.
    
    5. NO WARRANTY
    
    EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY SET FORTH IN THIS AGREEMENT, THE PROGRAM IS
    PROVIDED ON AN "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
    KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY
    WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF TITLE, NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY
    OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Each Recipient is solely
    responsible for determining the appropriateness of using and
    distributing the Program and assumes all risks associated with its
    exercise of rights under this Agreement , including but not limited to
    the risks and costs of program errors, compliance with applicable
    laws, damage to or loss of data, programs or equipment, and
    unavailability or interruption of operations.
    
    6. DISCLAIMER OF LIABILITY
    
    EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY SET FORTH IN THIS AGREEMENT, NEITHER RECIPIENT NOR
    ANY CONTRIBUTORS SHALL HAVE ANY LIABILITY FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
    INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING
    WITHOUT LIMITATION LOST PROFITS), HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
    LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
    NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OR
    DISTRIBUTION OF THE PROGRAM OR THE EXERCISE OF ANY RIGHTS GRANTED
    HEREUNDER, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
    
    7. GENERAL
    
    If any provision of this Agreement is invalid or unenforceable under
    applicable law, it shall not affect the validity or enforceability of
    the remainder of the terms of this Agreement, and without further
    action by the parties hereto, such provision shall be reformed to the
    minimum extent necessary to make such provision valid and enforceable.
    
    If Recipient institutes patent litigation against any entity
    (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that
    the Program itself (excluding combinations of the Program with other
    software or hardware) infringes such Recipient's patent(s), then such
    Recipient's rights granted under Section 2(b) shall terminate as of
    the date such litigation is filed.
    
    All Recipient's rights under this Agreement shall terminate if it
    fails to comply with any of the material terms or conditions of this
    Agreement and does not cure such failure in a reasonable period of
    time after becoming aware of such noncompliance. If all Recipient's
    rights under this Agreement terminate, Recipient agrees to cease use
    and distribution of the Program as soon as reasonably
    practicable. However, Recipient's obligations under this Agreement and
    any licenses granted by Recipient relating to the Program shall
    continue and survive.
    
    Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute copies of this Agreement,
    but in order to avoid inconsistency the Agreement is copyrighted and
    may only be modified in the following manner. The Agreement Steward
    reserves the right to publish new versions (including revisions) of
    this Agreement from time to time. No one other than the Agreement
    Steward has the right to modify this Agreement. The Eclipse Foundation
    is the initial Agreement Steward. The Eclipse Foundation may assign
    the responsibility to serve as the Agreement Steward to a suitable
    separate entity. Each new version of the Agreement will be given a
    distinguishing version number. The Program (including Contributions)
    may always be distributed subject to the version of the Agreement
    under which it was received. In addition, after a new version of the
    Agreement is published, Contributor may elect to distribute the
    Program (including its Contributions) under the new version. Except as
    expressly stated in Sections 2(a) and 2(b) above, Recipient receives
    no rights or licenses to the intellectual property of any Contributor
    under this Agreement, whether expressly, by implication, estoppel or
    otherwise. All rights in the Program not expressly granted under this
    Agreement are reserved.
    
    This Agreement is governed by the laws of the State of New York and
    the intellectual property laws of the United States of America. No
    party to this Agreement will bring a legal action under this Agreement
    more than one year after the cause of action arose. Each party waives
    its rights to a jury trial in any resulting litigation.
    По просьбе kidar2 добавляю лицензию EPL. Это копилефтная лицензия, но она не совместима с GNU GPL.

    При распространении в форме исходного кода программа должна быть доступна под лицензией EPL.

    Автору разрешается распространять программу в форме объектного кода под собственной лицензией, при условии, что: эта лицензия соблюдает условия EPL, явно отказывается от любых гарантий и ответственности от лица всех авторов, указывает, что исходные коды программы доступны у этого автора и объясняет, как их получить.

    Применение к своему проекту: копия лицензии должна быть включена во все копии программы

    Ms-PL (Microsoft Public License)
    Текст лицензии
    Microsoft Public License (Ms-PL)
    
    This license governs use of the accompanying software. If you use the
    software, you accept this license. If you do not accept the license,
    do not use the software.
    
     1. Definitions
    
        The terms "reproduce," "reproduction," "derivative works," and
        "distribution" have the same meaning here as under U.S. copyright
        law.
    
        A "contribution" is the original software, or any additions or
        changes to the software.
    
        A "contributor" is any person that distributes its contribution
        under this license.
    
        "Licensed patents" are a contributor's patent claims that read
        directly on its contribution.
    
     2. Grant of Rights
    
        (A) Copyright Grant- Subject to the terms of this license,
        including the license conditions and limitations in section 3,
        each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide,
        royalty-free copyright license to reproduce its contribution,
        prepare derivative works of its contribution, and distribute its
        contribution or any derivative works that you create.
       
        (B) Patent Grant- Subject to the terms of this license, including
        the license conditions and limitations in section 3, each
        contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free
        license under its licensed patents to make, have made, use, sell,
        offer for sale, import, and/or otherwise dispose of its
        contribution in the software or derivative works of the
        contribution in the software.
     
     3. Conditions and Limitations
      
        (A) No Trademark License- This license does not grant you rights
        to use any contributors' name, logo, or trademarks.
    
        (B) If you bring a patent claim against any contributor over
        patents that you claim are infringed by the software, your patent
        license from such contributor to the software ends automatically.
    
        (C) If you distribute any portion of the software, you must retain
        all copyright, patent, trademark, and attribution notices that are
        present in the software.
    
        (D) If you distribute any portion of the software in source code
        form, you may do so only under this license by including a
        complete copy of this license with your distribution. If you
        distribute any portion of the software in compiled or object code
        form, you may only do so under a license that complies with this
        license.  
    
        (E) The software is licensed "as-is." You bear the risk of using
        it. The contributors give no express warranties, guarantees, or
        conditions. You may have additional consumer rights under your
        local laws which this license cannot change. To the extent
        permitted under your local laws, the contributors exclude the
        implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular
        purpose and non-infringement.
    Про лицензию напомнил sensboston. Копилефтная лицензия, несовместимая с GPL. По смыслу схожа с EPL, но написана гораздо, гораздо более человеческм языком. Самая короткая из присутствующих в этой статье копилефтных лицензий.

    Обладает даже более слабым копилефтом, чем EPL: если вы распространяете исходные коды проекта, содержащие код под Ms-PL, то все исходные коды проекта должны распространяться под Ms-PL. При этом, распространение в форме объектного кода или бинарной форме позволяется под любой лицензией, не нарушающей Ms-PL. Кроме того, вы обязаны сохранять все копирайты, патенты, торговые марки и указания авторства оригинального кода. Да, лицензия регулирует патентные отношения.

    Для применения к своему проекту: скопируйте текст лицензии в ваш проект (например, в файл LICENSE) и распространяйте его вместе с ним.

    MIT
    Текст лицензии
     Copyright (c) 1998, 1999, 2000 Thai Open Source Software Center Ltd
     
     Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
     a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
     "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
     without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
     distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
     permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
     the following conditions:
     
     The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
     in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
     
     THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
     EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
     MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT.
     IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY
     CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT,
     TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE
     SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
    Существует миф, что лицензия MIT существует. Дело в том, что MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) использовал много разных лицензий. Тот текст, который сейчас называют лицензией MIT, в оригинале являлся лицензией Expat, а еще ранее составлял большую часть лицензии X11. Эта лицензия — разрешительная, без копилефта. Она разрешает использование и изменение кода практически любым образом, при условии, что текст самой лицензии и указание авторства никуда не исчезнут, даже если вы разобьете изначальный проект на части. Также неоспоримое достоинство этой лицензии — небольшой размер. В качестве недостатка отмечают отсутствие регулирования патентных отношений. Из-за этого вместо нее GNU рекомендуют использовать другую разрешительную лицензию — Apache 2.0, а MIT предлагают использовать лишь для небольших проектов. Тем не менее, из разрешительных лицензий эта, пожалуй, самая известная.

    Для ее применения к своему проекту создайте текстовый файл LICENSE и поместите текст лицензии туда, а также не забудьте заменить данные в строке с копирайтом на верные. Многие дополнительно указывают полный текст лицензии в шапке каждого файла исходного кода.

    Apache 2.0
    Текст лицензии
                                     Apache License
                               Version 2.0, January 2004
                            http://www.apache.org/licenses/
    
       TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR USE, REPRODUCTION, AND DISTRIBUTION
    
       1. Definitions.
    
          "License" shall mean the terms and conditions for use, reproduction,
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          WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or
          implied, including, without limitation, any warranties or conditions
          of TITLE, NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY, or FITNESS FOR A
          PARTICULAR PURPOSE. You are solely responsible for determining the
          appropriateness of using or redistributing the Work and assume any
          risks associated with Your exercise of permissions under this License.
    
       8. Limitation of Liability. In no event and under no legal theory,
          whether in tort (including negligence), contract, or otherwise,
          unless required by applicable law (such as deliberate and grossly
          negligent acts) or agreed to in writing, shall any Contributor be
          liable to You for damages, including any direct, indirect, special,
          incidental, or consequential damages of any character arising as a
          result of this License or out of the use or inability to use the
          Work (including but not limited to damages for loss of goodwill,
          work stoppage, computer failure or malfunction, or any and all
          other commercial damages or losses), even if such Contributor
          has been advised of the possibility of such damages.
    
       9. Accepting Warranty or Additional Liability. While redistributing
          the Work or Derivative Works thereof, You may choose to offer,
          and charge a fee for, acceptance of support, warranty, indemnity,
          or other liability obligations and/or rights consistent with this
          License. However, in accepting such obligations, You may act only
          on Your own behalf and on Your sole responsibility, not on behalf
          of any other Contributor, and only if You agree to indemnify,
          defend, and hold each Contributor harmless for any liability
          incurred by, or claims asserted against, such Contributor by reason
          of your accepting any such warranty or additional liability.
    
       END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
    
       APPENDIX: How to apply the Apache License to your work.
    
          To apply the Apache License to your work, attach the following
          boilerplate notice, with the fields enclosed by brackets "[]"
          replaced with your own identifying information. (Don't include
          the brackets!)  The text should be enclosed in the appropriate
          comment syntax for the file format. We also recommend that a
          file or class name and description of purpose be included on the
          same "printed page" as the copyright notice for easier
          identification within third-party archives.
    
       Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner]
    
       Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
       you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
       You may obtain a copy of the License at
    
           http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
    
       Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
       distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
       WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
       See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
       limitations under the License.
    Наиболее современная и сбалансированная из разрешительных лицензий. Написана человеческим языком, но с оглядкой на современное правоприменение, в частности, упомянутые выше патентные отношения (пункт 3 лицензии). GNU советуют применять именно эту лицензию, когда вам необходима разрешительная лицензия.

    Для применения лицензии Apache 2.0 к вашему проекту, нужно добавить в него файл LICENSE, содержащий текст лицензии. Кроме того, в APPENDIX лицензии нам предлагают добавлять в качестве шапки в каждый файл исходного кода следующий текст:

    Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner]
    
    Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
    you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
    You may obtain a copy of the License at
    
        http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
    
    Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
    distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
    WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
    See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
    limitations under the License.

    Но при этом сама лицензия выдвигает следующие требования:
    made available under the License, as indicated by a copyright notice that is included in or attached to the work (an example is provided in the Appendix below)
    copyright notice — это как раз строка, указывающая правообладателя. А «made available under the License, as indicated» означает, что еще должна быть явно указана лицензия. То есть, допустимо что-то вида:

    Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner]
    Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0

    Причем, совсем необязательно в исходном коде — Apache 2.0 позволяет для этого использовать файл NOTICE («or attached to the work»).

    И еще о файле NOTICE: если в вашей работе вы используете чужой проект под лицензией Apache 2.0, содержащий свой файл NOTICE, то в этом случае вы обязаны копировать в производную работу содержимое файла NOTICE, в одно из трех мест: либо в аналогичный файл NOTICE, либо в исходные коды или документацию, распространяемую вместе с производной работой, либо в вывод производной работы (например в about-диалог); все согласно пункту 4 (d) лицензии. Заметьте, что, вопреки расхожему мнению, обязательного наличия файла NOTICE лицензия не требует.

    При распространении в бинарной форме, вы, кроме того, должны предоставлять копию лицензии вместе с программой.

    BSD
    Текст лицензии
    Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
    modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
    met:
    
        (1) Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
        notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 
    
        (2) Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
        notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
        the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
        distribution.  
        
        (3)The name of the author may not be used to
        endorse or promote products derived from this software without
        specific prior written permission.
    
    THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR
    IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
    WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
    DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
    INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
    (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
    SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
    HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
    STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING
    IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
    POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
    Это разрешительная лицензия, схожая по смыслу с лицензией MIT. Оригинальная лицензия BSD состояла из 4-х пунктов, но, впоследствии, 3-й пункт, требовавший включать уведомление об авторстве во все рекламные материалы, был исключен. Кроме того, существует и двухпунктовая лицензия BSD, о которой напомнил Athari, в ней удален третий пункт, и эта версия практически совпадает по функциональности с лицензией MIT. GNU советуют вместо лицензии BSD использовать MIT, чтобы исключить путаницу с тем, какая именно версия лицензии BSD используется.

    Для ее применения к своему проекту создайте текстовый файл LICENSE и поместите текст лицензии туда. Не забудьте добавить строку с копирайтом. Также, дополнительно можно указать полный текст лицензии в шапке каждого файла исходного кода.

    При распространении в бинарной форме лицензия и копирайт должны быть представлены в документации и/или других материалах, распространяемых вместе с бинарником.

    WTFPL Version 2
    Текст лицензии
                DO WHAT THE FUCK YOU WANT TO PUBLIC LICENSE
                        Version 2, December 2004
    
     Copyright (C) 2004 Sam Hocevar <sam@hocevar.net>
    
     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim or modified
     copies of this license document, and changing it is allowed as long
     as the name is changed.
    
                DO WHAT THE FUCK YOU WANT TO PUBLIC LICENSE
       TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
    
      0. You just DO WHAT THE FUCK YOU WANT TO.
    Как оказалось, весьма популярная на Хабре лицензия (спасибо Komzpa, Stasik0 и плюсовавшим). Кроме того, она присутствует в списке лицензий GNU, хотя они и постеснялись разместить ее текст на своем сайте.

    GNU классифицируют ее как разрешительную некопилефтную лицензию и не рекомендуют ее использовать без каких-либо объяснений. Вместо нее предлагаются MIT или Apache 2.0.

    Могу предположить причины:
    • во-первых, лицензия содержит лексику, которая может считаться ненормативной (и я не уверен, что в таком случае лицензию будут принимать в расчет, скажем, в суде),
    • во-вторых, в лицензии никак не прописан отказ от ответственности,
    • в-третьих, у меня есть подозрение, что разрешение пользователю делать с кодом все что угодно тоже может быть оспорено юристами.

    Чтобы применить ее к своему проекту — просто добавьте файл с лицензией в проект и не забудьте поменять в лицензии строку с копирайтом. Можно также добавить лицензию в шапку ко всем исходникам проекта.

    Beerware
    Текст лицензии
    /*
    * — * «THE BEER-WARE LICENSE» (Revision 42):
    * <phk@FreeBSD.ORG> wrote this file. As long as you retain this notice you
    * can do whatever you want with this stuff. If we meet some day, and you think
    * this stuff is worth it, you can buy me a beer in return. Poul-Henning Kamp
    * — */
    Еще одна лицензия, набравшая плюсов в комменатриях (спасибо JDima и плюсовавшим). Это тоже разрешительная лицензия, которая пытается разрешить все (ключевое слово «пытается») и содержит необязательное условие поставить автору пива (в других версиях, выпить в честь автора) при встрече, если вам понравился его проект.

    Как известно, «чрезмерное употребление пива вредит вашему здоровью». Но беда этой лицензии не в пиве. Обратите внимание на фразу
    <phk@FreeBSD.ORG> wrote this file. As long as you retain this notice...
    Теперь представьте, что вы изменили код этого файла. Или вы взяли код из этого файла, чтобы добавить в свой. Теперь фраза
    <phk@FreeBSD.ORG> wrote this file.
    является неверной, но вы обязаны ее сохранить! То есть, лицензия пытается отобрать у вас право указывать авторство произведения. А, например, в России автор имеет неимущественные и неотчуждаемые право авторства и право автора на имя. Получается, что такая лицензия, разрешая изменения и использование кода и запрещая указывать новых авторов, является незаконной (по-хорошему, нужно уточнить у юриста).

    Общественное достояние (Public Domain)
    Это, конечно же, не лицензия. Но многие рассматривают перевод произведения в общественное достояние как способ сложить с себя имущественные права. Периодически люди пытаются сделать это и в отношении программ. Обычно просто пишут, что проект находится в Public Domain и радуются, что все смогут им пользоваться. Но на самом деле это не так! В разных странах общественное достояние разное. Причем, в большинстве из них закон явно не предусматривает механизмов для перевода произведения в общественное достояние по желанию автора! Например, в России переход в общественное достояние определен только по истечению срока действия защиты авторского права. В США, насколько мне известно, досрочной процедуры тоже не предусмотрено. Кроме того, могут быть сложности и с использованием произведений, находящихся в общественном достоянии. Скажем, в Уругвае, для того, чтобы использовать произведение из общественного достояния, вам понадобится уплатить пошлину государству и получить разрешение специальной комиссии, которая удостоверится, что вы не будете использовать данное произведение как-то непотребно (правда, я не знаю, работает ли все это в отношении программ). Вследствие подобных нюансов, появились лицензии подобные следующей.

    CC0 (Creative Commons CC0)
    Текст лицензии
         CREATIVE COMMONS CORPORATION IS NOT A LAW FIRM AND DOES NOT
         PROVIDE LEGAL SERVICES. DISTRIBUTION OF THIS DOCUMENT DOES NOT
         CREATE AN ATTORNEY-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP. CREATIVE COMMONS PROVIDES
         THIS INFORMATION ON AN "AS-IS" BASIS. CREATIVE COMMONS MAKES NO
         WARRANTIES REGARDING THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR THE INFORMATION
         OR WORKS PROVIDED HEREUNDER, AND DISCLAIMS LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES
         RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR THE INFORMATION OR
         WORKS PROVIDED HEREUNDER.
    
    Statement of Purpose
    
    The laws of most jurisdictions throughout the world automatically
    confer exclusive Copyright and Related Rights (defined below) upon the
    creator and subsequent owner(s) (each and all, an "owner") of an
    original work of authorship and/or a database (each, a "Work").
    
    Certain owners wish to permanently relinquish those rights to a Work
    for the purpose of contributing to a commons of creative, cultural and
    scientific works ("Commons") that the public can reliably and without
    fear of later claims of infringement build upon, modify, incorporate
    in other works, reuse and redistribute as freely as possible in any
    form whatsoever and for any purposes, including without limitation
    commercial purposes. These owners may contribute to the Commons to
    promote the ideal of a free culture and the further production of
    creative, cultural and scientific works, or to gain reputation or
    greater distribution for their Work in part through the use and
    efforts of others.
    
    For these and/or other purposes and motivations, and without any
    expectation of additional consideration or compensation, the person
    associating CC0 with a Work (the "Affirmer"), to the extent that he or
    she is an owner of Copyright and Related Rights in the Work,
    voluntarily elects to apply CC0 to the Work and publicly distribute
    the Work under its terms, with knowledge of his or her Copyright and
    Related Rights in the Work and the meaning and intended legal effect
    of CC0 on those rights.
    
    1. Copyright and Related Rights. A Work made available under CC0 may
    be protected by copyright and related or neighboring rights
    ("Copyright and Related Rights"). Copyright and Related Rights
    include, but are not limited to, the following:
    
        the right to reproduce, adapt, distribute, perform, display,
        communicate, and translate a Work; moral rights retained by the
        original author(s) and/or performer(s); publicity and privacy
        rights pertaining to a person's image or likeness depicted in a
        Work; rights protecting against unfair competition in regards to a
        Work, subject to the limitations in paragraph 4(a), below; rights
        protecting the extraction, dissemination, use and reuse of data in
        a Work; database rights (such as those arising under Directive
        96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March
        1996 on the legal protection of databases, and under any national
        implementation thereof, including any amended or successor version
        of such directive); and other similar, equivalent or corresponding
        rights throughout the world based on applicable law or treaty, and
        any national implementations thereof.
    
    2. Waiver. To the greatest extent permitted by, but not in
    contravention of, applicable law, Affirmer hereby overtly, fully,
    permanently, irrevocably and unconditionally waives, abandons, and
    surrenders all of Affirmer's Copyright and Related Rights and
    associated claims and causes of action, whether now known or unknown
    (including existing as well as future claims and causes of action), in
    the Work (i) in all territories worldwide, (ii) for the maximum
    duration provided by applicable law or treaty (including future time
    extensions), (iii) in any current or future medium and for any number
    of copies, and (iv) for any purpose whatsoever, including without
    limitation commercial, advertising or promotional purposes (the
    "Waiver"). Affirmer makes the Waiver for the benefit of each member of
    the public at large and to the detriment of Affirmer's heirs and
    successors, fully intending that such Waiver shall not be subject to
    revocation, rescission, cancellation, termination, or any other legal
    or equitable action to disrupt the quiet enjoyment of the Work by the
    public as contemplated by Affirmer's express Statement of Purpose.
    
    3. Public License Fallback. Should any part of the Waiver for any
    reason be judged legally invalid or ineffective under applicable law,
    then the Waiver shall be preserved to the maximum extent permitted
    taking into account Affirmer's express Statement of Purpose. In
    addition, to the extent the Waiver is so judged Affirmer hereby grants
    to each affected person a royalty-free, non transferable, non
    sublicensable, non exclusive, irrevocable and unconditional license to
    exercise Affirmer's Copyright and Related Rights in the Work (i) in
    all territories worldwide, (ii) for the maximum duration provided by
    applicable law or treaty (including future time extensions), (iii) in
    any current or future medium and for any number of copies, and (iv)
    for any purpose whatsoever, including without limitation commercial,
    advertising or promotional purposes (the "License"). The License shall
    be deemed effective as of the date CC0 was applied by Affirmer to the
    Work. Should any part of the License for any reason be judged legally
    invalid or ineffective under applicable law, such partial invalidity
    or ineffectiveness shall not invalidate the remainder of the License,
    and in such case Affirmer hereby affirms that he or she will not (i)
    exercise any of his or her remaining Copyright and Related Rights in
    the Work or (ii) assert any associated claims and causes of action
    with respect to the Work, in either case contrary to Affirmer's
    express Statement of Purpose.
    
    4. Limitations and Disclaimers.
    
        No trademark or patent rights held by Affirmer are waived,
        abandoned, surrendered, licensed or otherwise affected by this
        document.  Affirmer offers the Work as-is and makes no
        representations or warranties of any kind concerning the Work,
        express, implied, statutory or otherwise, including without
        limitation warranties of title, merchantability, fitness for a
        particular purpose, non infringement, or the absence of latent or
        other defects, accuracy, or the present or absence of errors,
        whether or not discoverable, all to the greatest extent
        permissible under applicable law.  Affirmer disclaims
        responsibility for clearing rights of other persons that may apply
        to the Work or any use thereof, including without limitation any
        person's Copyright and Related Rights in the Work. Further,
        Affirmer disclaims responsibility for obtaining any necessary
        consents, permissions or other rights required for any use of the
        Work.  Affirmer understands and acknowledges that Creative Commons
        is not a party to this document and has no duty or obligation with
        respect to this CC0 or use of the Work.
    Creative Commons CC0 — лицензия, которая пытается перевести проект в общественное достояние в максимальной форме, разрешенной законом. А если закон не позволяет это совершить, автоматически применяет положения разрешительной лицензии. GNU рекомендует применять CC0 в том случае, если вы хотите перевести вашу работу в общественное достояние.

    Про применение CC0 к проекту можно прочитать в этой статье.

    Unlicense
    Текст лицензии
    This is free and unencumbered software released into the public domain.
    
    Anyone is free to copy, modify, publish, use, compile, sell, or
    distribute this software, either in source code form or as a compiled
    binary, for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, and by any
    means.
    
    In jurisdictions that recognize copyright laws, the author or authors
    of this software dedicate any and all copyright interest in the
    software to the public domain. We make this dedication for the benefit
    of the public at large and to the detriment of our heirs and
    successors. We intend this dedication to be an overt act of
    relinquishment in perpetuity of all present and future rights to this
    software under copyright law.
    
    THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
    EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
    MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT.
    IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR
    OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE,
    ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR
    OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
    
    For more information, please refer to <http://unlicense.org/>
    Про лицензию напомнил Athari. Эта лицензия появилась путем копипасты текста о передаче в общественное достояние и отказа от прав (waiver) проекта SQLite и отказа от гарантий из лицензии MIT. Аналогично лицензии CC0, Unlicense пытается перевести работу в общественное достояние и послужить в виде лицензионного договора на случай, если этого не произошло. Однако, эта лицензия менее проработана, чем CC0, из-за чего может являться нелегальной. Вот в этом вопросе на stackexchange подробнее. Вкратце, там указано, что лицензия явно нелегальна, например, в Германии, так как там, похоже, нет понятия общественного достояния. А Unlicense, в отличие от CC0, не отказывается от перевода в общественное достояние для случая, когда это противоречит закону. Кроме того лицензия как минимум нелогична (или даже противоречива), так как передача в общественное достояние, заявленная в первой строке, в случае успеха делает невалидными параграфы, следующие за ней.

    Для применения Unlicense нужно добавить файл с текстом лицензии к вашему проекту. Авторы лицензии рекомендуют назвать файл UNLICENSE.

    Copyright в исходниках


    Наверное, вы заметили, что многие лицензии предлагают размещать определенный текст в виде комментария в шапке файла? Если это является обязательным требованием, то тогда ему нужно следовать. Но насколько необходим подобный текст, если явного требования лицензия не предъявляет?

    Хорошие новости: в таком случае лицензию и даже копирайт совершенно не обязательно указывать в шапке файла. Ваша работа и так ваша, для подтверждения этого указывать копирайт нет необходимости. Подтверждать авторство или обладание правами вам все равно придется другими способами, а текст лицензии может находиться в отдельном файле.

    Но все же такой заголовок лучше иметь. Основные причины следующие:
    • Он четко показывает, что права на код кому-то принадлежат. Отмазки вида «я не знал, там не написано, не смог найти, не заметил» уже не прокатят. Иначе говоря, наличие такого заголовка предотвращает случайное неправомерное использование кода, а также может увеличить ответственность за намеренное.
    • Дает возможность идентифицировать владельца прав на код, чтобы связаться с ним в том числе и по вопросам правомерности использования этого кода.

    Между прочим, это имеет смысл не только для open-source проекта. Указание владельца прав и авторства может помочь и проприетарному коду в том случае, если он каким-либо образом утечет в сеть.

    Если вы решили, что уведомление о правах на файл исходного кода вам необходимо, то вот что оно должно содержать в идеале:
    • Copyright — так как в некоторых странах одного символа копирайта недостаточно для юридической значимости уведомления.
    • © — символ копирайта, в большинстве стран он необходим и достаточен для придания юридической значимости уведомлению. Простой буквы c в скобках ( c ) для этого может быть недостаточно. Используйте уже Unicode!
    • 2007, 2009, 2010 – 2012 — «годы жизни» кода, первое число — год, когда продукт был впервые опубликован, далее — годы, когда код обновлялся. Если годы, когда код в файле правился, идут не подряд, то их нужно указывать через запятую.
    • John Doe — имя владельца авторских прав. Не автора, это могут быть разные лица! Может быть именем человека, названием компании, или именами нескольких человек. Правда, в последнем случае лучше сделать отдельную строчку на каждого человека.
    • All rights reserved — «все права защищены», означает, что указанные лица обладают всеми правами на код. Дополнительное усиление уведомления копирайта, в случае обладания исключительными правами.
    • Если возможно, то дать ссылку на лицензионный договор или указание, где его искать.
    • Указать контактные данные.

    Обратите внимание, что имя автора в уведомление не входит. Автора/авторов можно указать отдельно, например, на следующей строке, в свободной форме (например Author: Jane Doe).

    Ну и, на всякий случай, примеры
    // Copyright © 2022 John Doe. All rights reserved.
    

    // Copyright © 2022-2096 Acme Corporation. All rights reserved.
    // Author: John Doe
    

    // Copyright © 2022 John Doe
    // Copyright © 2023-2028 Jane Doe
    // Copyright © 2028-2096 Acme Corporation. Contacts: <acme@example.com>
    // License: http://opensource.org/licenses/MIT
    

    Заключение


    Разместить ваш проект в интернете и написать «пользуйтесь все!» еще недостаточно для того, чтобы им действительно начали пользоваться. И речь не о рекламе или полезности конкретного проекта. Часто необходимо четкое понимание, как можно и как нельзя использовать проект, особенно, если цели использования — коммерческие. В том числе, слова «пользуйтесь все» вряд ли удастся представить договором с правообладателем в случае каких-либо проблем.

    При выборе лицензии задумайтесь, в первую очередь, о том, что лицензию вы пишете в большей степени не для себя, а для тех, кто вашим кодом будет пользоваться. Она регулирует ваши отношения с ними. Кто будет использовать ваш код? Как они будут его использовать? Какая из лицензий будет им удобнее? Какие проблемы из-за лицензии могут возникнуть у них? А у вас? Ответив на подобные вопросы, можно подобрать наилучшую лицензию.

    В свою очередь, если вы используете чужой проект в своих целях, то нужно понять ограничения, накладываемые на вас его лицензией. Подходят ли они вам, сможете ли вы выполнить эти требования?

    Лицензия, даже свободная, является договором между правообладателем и пользователем. Старайтесь рассматривать это именно так.

    Материалы


    1. Право интеллектуальной собственности. Шпаргалка, Коллектив авторов
    2. Служебное произведение, Википедия
    3. Moral rights, Wikipedia
    4. Лицензия на программное обеспечение, Википедия
    5. Определение свободного программного обеспечения, Википедия
    6. Критерии Debian по определению свободного программного обеспечения, Википедия
    7. Свободная лицензия, Википедия
    8. Проприетарное программное обеспечение, Википедия
    9. Ричард Столлман, Википедия
    10. Брюс Перенс, Википедия
    11. Открытое программное обеспечение, Википедия
    12. Разрешительная лицензия свободного ПО, Википедия
    13. Various licenses and comments about them/Различные лицензии и комментарии к ним, GNU
    14. Копилефт, Википедия
    15. Understanding Open Source and Free Software Licensing, Andrew M. St. Laurent
    16. GNU Lesser General Public License, Википедия
    17. Почему вам не следует применять Меньшую GPL для своей следующей библиотеки, GNU
    18. Frequently Asked Questions about the GNU Licenses, GNU
    19. Как применять лицензии GNU со своими программами, GNU
    20. Лицензия BSD, Википедия
    21. Общественное достояние, Википедия
    22. Ley 9.739, Propiedad literaria y artistica, leyes de la República Oriental del Uruguay
    23. Uruguay: Dominio Público pero Pagante, Fundación Karisma con Open Business Latinamerica and the Caribbean
    24. Managing copyright information within a free software project, Software Freedom Law Center
    25. Using copyright notices, The UK Copyright Service
    26. Get rid of source code templates, Ville Laurikari
    27. MPL 2.0 FAQ, Mozilla Foundation
    28. «The Beerware License» Considered Harmful, RM
    29. How does MS-PL license work? Stackoverflow
    30. Unlicense Yourself: Set Your Code Free
    31. What is wrong with the Unlicense?

    Update
    Добавил GNU GPL Version 2, спасибо, wholeman
    Добавил MPL Version 2.0, спасибо, lorus
    Поправлено описание GNU GPL, спасибо, coh
    Поправлено описание Apache 2.0, благодаря eyeofhell
    Добавил WTFPL Version 2, спасибо Komzpa, Stasik0 и плюсовавшим
    Добавил Beerware license, спасибо JDima и плюсовавшим
    Добавил GNU AGPL, спасибо coh, lorus
    Добавил EPL Version 1.0, спасибо, kidar2
    Добавил Ms-PL и ссылку на еще один список лицензий, спасибо, sensboston
    Добавил в описание GPLv2 и GPLv3 ссылку на «Практическое руководство по соответствию GPL», спасибо, Indexator
    Добавил ссылку на сайт LicenseIT, спасибо, sensboston
    Добавил в описание GPLv3 еще одну ссылку, еше раз спасибо, Indexator
    Добавил описание Unlicense и внес правки в описания LGPL, MPL, MIT, BSD, спасибо, Athari
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    Комментарии 116
    • +4
      Круто! Очень подробно и доходчиво, спасибо.
      • +2
        Не совсем. GPL 2 не упомянута, однако, многие пользуются этой версией. Из наиболее известных проектов — ядро Linux, хотя RMS лично уговаривал Линуса перейти на третью GPL. GPLv3 заметно строже и может создать некоторые проблемы автору. Например, одно из требований состоит в том, что должна быть предоставлена инструкция по установке изменённого приложения на устройство. Для приложений под iOS или WindowsPhone, где нет штатной возможности установить пакет не из магазина, выполнить такое требование проблематично.
        • 0
          С вашей помощью статья станет более полной :)
          • 0
            Добавил описание GPLv2 в статью, спасибою
        • +3
          Для проекта open source стоит ещё рассмотреть MPL 2.0. Своеобразная лицензия, что-то среднее между LGPL и BSD. От LGPL отличается отсутствием заморочек со статическим связыванием. Это может оказаться важным для программ на ЯП, в которых динамическое связывание не предусмотрено.
          • +1
            Спасибо, добавил в статью. Не сталкивался раньше с этой лицензией.
          • 0
            А что будет человеку, который использовал, к примеру, программу с лицензией GPLv3, но не выложил свои исходники? Он же может сказать, что сейчас у него нет времени, когда-нибудь потом выложу и будет кормить завтраками.
            • 0
              В теории он может и не выкладывать. Он должен предоставить по первому требованию любому потребовавшему, а если не предоставит, то это — нарушение условий лицензии, которое может повлечь за собой судебный иск, например.
              • 0
                Если использует программу для себя, не распространяя, то может и не выкладывать исходники, насколько я понимаю… А если распространяет не публикуя код, то вполне могут (тот же FSF) как минимум напихать палок в колеса, например, поспособствовать удалению из всех маркетов…
                • 0
                  Прошу прощения. Я был неточен в статье, но coh и x0wl меня поправили: он не обязан выкладывать исходники, он обязан предоставить их конечным пользователям.Вот здесь подробнее: geektimes.ru/post/45878/
                  Если он не предоставит исходники, то тогда все зависит от пользователя: тот может обидиться, а может и в суд.
                  • 0
                    Но где границы этой обиды и подачи в суд? Допустим, я скажу, что сейчас у меня сломался компьютер, умер хомяк, уезжаю в командировку в Антарктиду и не могу сейчас предоставить исходники. Насколько я понимаю, это нигде не прописано и имеется множество причин откладывать выполнение требования.
                    • +1
                      Границы там, где сочтет нужным обиженный.
                      • +1
                        Как я написал в статье, лицензия — это договор. Вы, как разработчик, по нему обязуетесь выполнить одни условия, пользователь — другие. Если кто-то не выполняет условия договора — то это повод второму для обращения в инстанции. А границы в этом случае установит судья. Ну, или присяжные.
                  • +5
                    Лучшая лицензия: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beerware
                    /*
                    * — * «THE BEER-WARE LICENSE» (Revision 42):
                    * <phk@FreeBSD.ORG> wrote this file. As long as you retain this notice you
                    * can do whatever you want with this stuff. If we meet some day, and you think
                    * this stuff is worth it, you can buy me a beer in return. Poul-Henning Kamp
                    * — */
                    • 0
                      Добавил Beerware, с ней все не радужно. Но, спасибо.
                    • +8
                      Совершенно забыта самая правильная лицензия для тех, кто не знает, под какой лицензией выложить кусок кода — WTFPL:

                      ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/WTFPL
                      • +2
                        Добавил WTFPL в статью, спасибо.
                        • +2
                          Кстати, регулярно пользуюсь. Очень удобно для всяких мелочей, которые лень лицензировать по-человечески.
                          • +2
                            У неё есть один существенный недостаток: она никак не ограничивает ответственность автора. Всякие отказы от гарантий и тому подобные вещи пишут не просто так, а для того, чтобы обезопасить себя от претензий пользователей, у которых что-то пошло не так.
                            • 0
                              Это хлам с пиаром автора. Строчка по сути, пять строчек про копирайт на текст лицензии, версии, даты и прочий мусор. Тьфу. Лучше уж так:

                              DO WHAT THE FUCK YOU WANT TO PUBLIC LICENSE*

                              TERMS AND CONDITIONS
                              1. You just DO WHAT THE FUCK YOU WANT TO.


                              Ну а если серьёзно, то реальная минимальная лицензия с аналогичным результатом («почти PD») — Unlicense.
                            • 0
                              За поиском определения я отправлю желающих на Википедию, для чего дам ссылки сразу на несколько статей:



                              Лично для меня наиболее интересно было бы узнать, как это всё соответствует 4 части ГК РФ. Если никак, то какой смысл в этих рассуждениях? Бить-то будут по мне, а не по Столмену.
                              • 0
                                Я боюсь, что Вам мало кто сможет ответить. Лучше всего обратиться к юристу, причем, серьезно занимающемуся лицензиями на ПО и авторскими правами. И не с заявленями Столлмана, а с какой-либо конкретно интересующей лицензией, дабы разобраться о ее соответствии законам и правоприменению в РФ. И, честно говоря, я все равно не уверен, что юрист сможет Вам все разложить по полочкам, так как наши законы (равно как и их отсутствие по конкретной теме) порой могут трактоваться весьма интересными способами.
                                • 0
                                  Возможно, Вам будет полезна вот эта ссылка: licenseit.ru/wiki/index.php, упомянутая sensboston ниже в комментариях.
                                • +2
                                  Над реальными проектами трудятся команды разработчиков. Не совсем понятно, как применять лицензию в этом случае. Допустим, один разработчик создал файл, и в шапке указал копирайт на своё имя. Если другие разработчики вносят изменения в этот файл, должны ли они себя так же добавлять в шапку? Ведь по сути, изменения — это тоже продукт интеллектуальной работы.
                                  • 0
                                    Авторы изменений обычно отмечаются в системе контроля версий или в патчах…
                                    • 0
                                      Это понятно, а лицензию-то как применять к changeset/revisions?
                                    • +2
                                      Владелец прав на распространение (копирайт) != автор. Если над проектом работает команда, то создаётся компания/команда/группа и копирайт оформляется на неё. А авторы указываются отдельно.
                                      • +2
                                        Будет несколько строчек с копирайтом, как в примере.
                                        // Copyright © 2022 John Doe
                                        // Copyright © 2023-2028 Jane Doe
                                        // Copyright © 2028-2096 Acme Corporation. 
                                        
                                        То есть, да, должны себя добавить в шапку.
                                        Если же все они работники компании, то, как вам правильно ответили, правообладателем, скорее всего, является компания, и будет указана она.
                                      • 0
                                        Небольшая неточность.
                                        если вы решите использовать библиотеку под GPLv3 в вашем проекте, вам придется выложить исходники вашего проекта под GPL

                                        На сколько я помню, вы не обязаны предоставлять исходники программы всем желающим. Если вы взяли GPLv3 код и сделали приложение (для себя) и не распространяете его, вы не обязаны предоставлять исходный код всем кому попало. Таким образом, вы обязаны предоставить исходники только своим конечным получателям. Вы можете не распространять программу бесплатно, брать некую сумму, но в таком случае вы обязаны исходный код под GPLv3 и не можете как-то ограничить получателя. Проще говоря, ваш клиент может начать раздавать приложение бесплатно модифицировать, создавать производные продукты.

                                        Мне кажется это очень важная деталь про которую забывают, поправьте меня если я ошибаюсь.
                                          • 0
                                            Спасибо, поправил описание в статье.
                                          • 0
                                            А как это будет относиться к веб-приложению?
                                            Например я выпускаю веб-сервис для поиска пропавших котят на платной основе. Для какой-то функциональности на серверной стороне я использую библиотеку под GPLv3. Я должен каким-то образом предоставлять код пользователю?
                                            • +4
                                              А никак. Если предоставить возможность пользоваться сервисом, не распространяя его как приложение (например, реализовав его в виде веб-приложения), то можно не предоставлять исходный код, не нарушая при этом GPL. Чтобы закрыть эту лазейку и придумали AGPL — «усиленную» версию GPL, покрывающую и этот случай.
                                              • 0
                                                Фирма исполняет на сайте модифицированную версию программы под GPL. Сказано ли в GPL, что они должны выпустить свои модифицированные исходные тексты? (#UnreleasedMods)

                                                GPL разрешает всем делать модифицированные версии и применять из безо всякой передачи другим. То, что делает эта фирма — особый случай таких действий. Следовательно, фирма не обязана выпускать модифицированные исходные тексты.

                                                Важно, чтобы у людей была свобода вносить изменения для личного пользования безо всякой публикации этих изменений. Однако размещение программы на сервере, чтобы публика с ней общалась, едва ли является “личным” использованием, так что было бы законным потребовать выпуска исходного текста в этом особом случае. Разработчики, заинтересованные в этом, могут воспользоваться GNU Affero GPL для программ, составляемых для применения на сетевых серверах.

                                                www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html#UnreleasedMods
                                            • –2
                                              Спасибо, полезно. Игру лицензировал под GPLv3 + CC-by для ресурсов. Подумываю об откате до GPLv2…
                                              • 0
                                                del
                                                • +1
                                                  В лицензии Apache 2.0 написано, что надо ее упоминать во всех файлах. Но это написано после текста лицензии. В самом же тексте лицензии написано «as indicated by a copyright notice that is included in or attached to the work (an example is provided in the Appendix below)». И из написанного в лицензии означает что достаточно «приаттачить» файл LICENSE к проекту.

                                                  Вопрос — под какой лицензией будет проект, выложенный на github, если в корне этого проекта находится файл с текстом лицензии Apache 2.0, но ни в одном исходном файле ничего не упоминается?
                                                  • +1
                                                    Проект будет под лицензией Apache 2.0. Но если кто-то получит/увидит файл исходного кода отдельно от проекта, ему будет проблематично узнать, под какой лицензией он распространяется и кто обладает правами на него.
                                                    • +1
                                                      Но ведь шансы на это примерно такие же, как «кто-то получит файл исходного кода отдельно от проекта, от которого отрезали шапку»? Или я что-то неправильно понимаю?
                                                      • 0
                                                        Отрезать — это уже чьи-то специальные действия. А просто при отсутствии — это может произойти случайно. Вы нашли файл в поисковике и не посмотрели, к какому проекту он относится. Ваш коллега переслал Вам его по почте без должных комментариев. То есть, увеличивается шанс на ошибку. Другое дело, что шанс на то, что такая ошибка приведет к юридическим последствиям, весьма невелик.

                                                        Кстати, если говорить о процитированной Вами фразе: «made available under the License, as indicated by a copyright notice that is included in or attached to the work (an example is provided in the Appendix below)», то copyright notice — это не сама лицензия. Это как раз строка, указывающая правообладателя. А «made available under the License, as indicated» означает, что еще должна быть явно указана лицензия. То есть, что-то вида:
                                                        Copyright 2013 John Doe
                                                        Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0
                                                        должно быть в проекте. Не обязательно в исходном коде, Apache 2.0 позволяет для этого использовать файл NOTICE. Думаю, немного поправлю в статье пункт про Apache.
                                                  • +1
                                                    WTFPL ещё есть для совсем простых случаев
                                                  • 0
                                                    А подскажите по портированию библиотек:
                                                    Я взял класс из библиотеки под лицензией MIT, портировал на другой язык для библиотеки под BSD 3clause. Что я должен написать и где, чтобы соблюсти авторские права исходной библиотеки.

                                                    Также интересует та же ситуация, но только не при портировании на другой язык, а небольшом изменении кода для другой библиотеки
                                                    • 0
                                                      1. Думаю, примерно так: скопировать файл LICENSE с лицензией MIT в новую библиотеку (или даже добавить прямо в существующий файл с BSD, указав, на какой файл она распространяется). К содержащемуся в лицензии копирайту/копирайтам добавить свой (Copyright 2014 quantum). Если копирайт был еще и в исходном файле с классом, то стоит его перенести и в новый файл. И добавить Ваш собственный.

                                                      2. Аналогично: указываете себя в качестве одного из авторов в лицензии. Если копирайты есть в файлах, то добавляетесь только в те файлы, где что-то меняли. Если изменяете лицензию, тоже придется держать в проекте обе лицензии.

                                                      Не забудьте, что у проектов могут иметься правила, куда нужно скопировать лицензию, и где указывать копирайт.
                                                      • 0
                                                        С MIT есть один момент, который не совсем понятен (мне во всяком случае; IANAL): т.к. она явно разрешает sublicense, то требование "[t]he above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software" может быть нарушено уже на втором сублицензиате. Т.е. я беру код MIT, перелицензирую его под условной DCL (Devoid Copyright License), включаю оригинальное авторство, как того требует MIT, но последующие чуваки могут, по идее, делать с копирайтом что хотят.

                                                        Получается, что MIT — этакая 0-clause BSD, требущая указывать copyright notice лишь до первого заимствования (0-clause потому, что лишь в самой лицензии; в отличие от BSD, которая явно упоминает сорцы и бинарники, MIT определяет Software довольно общо: «software and associated documentation files»).
                                                      • 0
                                                        А может ли кто-либо подсказать нарушаются ли права MS в след.случае:

                                                        Есть хидер поставляемый Microsoft при установке MS Visual Studio:
                                                        c:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SDKs\Windows\v7.0A\Include\WinNT.h

                                                        В этом хидере есть заголовки описывающие формат PE32\PE32+, к примеру IMAGE_NT_HEADERS64, IMAGE_OPTIONAL_HEADER64 и др. Есть очень много OpenSource проектов, которые работают с PE-файлами и которые у себя в коде используют один в один названия из winnt.h

                                                        Нарушают ли эти Open-Source проекты права MS?
                                                        • +2
                                                          Почему все говорят хидер, а не хедер? -___-'
                                                          • +1
                                                            Полагаю, потому, что в большинстве случаев «ea» читается как [i:]. И, несмотря на то, что ни разу не слышал произношения «head» как «хид», с header'ом извечная проблема у многих.
                                                            • +1
                                                              Спасибо за поправку. Но что с моим вопросом? ;)
                                                              • 0
                                                                Рискну предположить, что в случае серьезных разбирательств по подобному вопросу им бы занималась экспертная комиссия, состоящая из программистов и юристов (занимающихся плагиатом и авторским правом). Поэтому на Хабре Вам вряд ли ответят что-то конкретное. Но, Вы можете либо подать в суд, запастись деньгами и попкорном, и посмотреть, чем все закончится, либо найти знакомого профильного юриста и провести менее точное моделирование за бутылочкой горячительного.

                                                                Или стоит поискать в сети результаты по похожим случаям. Одну ссылку Вам уже предложили.
                                                            • 0
                                                              Можно рассудить по аналогии с en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SCO_v._IBM
                                                              • 0
                                                                Спасибо за ссылку. Ваш ответ еще больше подталкивает к мысли: «Береженого бог бережет». Другими словами использование тех же имен для проектов особого преимущества не несет, но при этом добавляет возможные проблемы. Небольшим преимуществом может быть разве что привычные названия для программистов знающих формат и читавших документ. Еще раз Спасибо!
                                                            • 0
                                                              Ещё бы EPL описать.
                                                              • 0
                                                                Добавил описание в статью, спасибо.
                                                              • 0
                                                                А что на счет смены лицензии?
                                                                Например в процессе разработки я решил сменить лицензию с GPL на какую нибудь копилефтную или проприетарную. Какие подводные камни? Ведь получается что последующая версия программы основывается на исходных кодах, которые уже были выложены под GPL лицензией?
                                                              • 0
                                                                А что насчет ресурсов? Распространяются ли копилефтные лицензии на ресурсы, обязан ли автор вместе с исходниками распространять ресурсы проекта и т.д.? Хотелось бы поподробнее на эту тему.
                                                                • 0
                                                                  К сожалению, не могу ответить. Сам бы с удовольствием послушал того, кто в этом разобрался. Вроде бы, GPL распространяется только на код, а ресурсы идут под своими лицензиями. А, например, CC0 применяется ко всему проекту. А про другие лицензии и этого не могу сказать. Да и эти сведения требуют проверки.
                                                                  • 0
                                                                    Любой кусок может лицензироваться отдельно, если это не запрещено лицензией. Например:
                                                                    Doom 3 = GPL (код открыт) / DSL (код открыт для некоммерческого использования) + EULA (использование ресурсов в игре продаётся);
                                                                    Descent = NC (код открыт для некоммерческого использования) + EULA (использование ресурсов в игре продаётся);
                                                                    WoW = EULA (код закрыт) + NC (ресурсы можно использовать для некоммерческого Machinima).
                                                                    • 0
                                                                      Это-то понятно, что автор/правообладатель может разделить проект на несколько частей и открыть отдельно только код без ресурсов, или даже использовать множественную лицензию для кода, чтобы одновременно выложить код в открытый доступ и отдельно линковать с ресурсами под проприетарной лицензией для продажи, без обязательств раскрытия изменений или других проприетарных частей, как например Qt, думаю с думом так же (хаха, каламбур).

                                                                      Больше интересует случай, когда я в свой проект добавляю GPL-код, который обязывает раскрывать мой код, то обязывает ли он раскрывать мои ресурсы, распространяется он на них или действует только на код?
                                                                      • +1
                                                                        А меня интересует несколько иное. Предположим, у меня есть проект, который содержит код, и, скажем, изображения. Я создаю в проекте файл LICENSE и копирую туда текст лицензии (интересует, в общем-то, для всего списка лицензий из статьи), нигде не уточняя, к чему именно в проекте применяется лицензия. Будет ли в таком случае лицензия распространяться и на изображения? И как в этом случае понимать фразу про «исходные коды», если она упомянута в лицензии? Должен ли я буду с исходным кодом распространять исходники изображений (проекты Gimp или Photoshop)?
                                                                        • 0
                                                                          GPL — это лицензия для кода. Для ресурсов, документации лучше выбрать более подходящую лицензию. С кодом под GPL хорошо пойдут CC-BY-SA для ресурсов, GFDL для документации. У них та же идея, что и у GPL, но они подходят для графики и текстов.

                                                                          В комплекте с пермиссивными лицензиями подойдёт CC-BY для контента. Если лицензия MIT, которая не говорит про сорцы, то можно всё под ней, наверное.

                                                                          Отказ от ответственности: никогда не лицензировал контент, вышеописанное — теория, основанная на прочитанном мной.
                                                                          • 0
                                                                            Получается непонятка: допустим, проект под GPL с двоичными ресурсами (картинки в SVG вполне можно считать кодом). Если GPL не распространяется на эти ресурсы, а отдельной лицензии нет, выходит, что их вообще нельзя использовать.
                                                                          • 0
                                                                            Спасибо за ответ. У меня примерно схожие мысли насчет MIT. К сожалению, хотелось бы разобраться досконально.
                                                                    • 0
                                                                      1. GPL требует публиковать исходники именно под GPL, или в любом виде?
                                                                      2. Если именно под GPL — что, если использовать код под GPL, а свой проект выпустить одновременно под GPL и, скажем, под MIT?
                                                                      • +1
                                                                        1. Да, GPL — т.н. «вирусная лицензия»
                                                                        2. Perl, например
                                                                        • 0
                                                                          То есть, таким способом возможно «вывести» код из GPL?
                                                                          Использование его в проекте, лицензированном одновременно под GPL и под MIT, сделает возможным взять уже из этого проекта код, но под MIT, и, соответственно, освободиться от требования использовать GPL?
                                                                          • +2
                                                                            То есть, таким способом возможно «вывести» код из GPL?
                                                                            Нет, конечно. Ваш код будут под обеими лицензиями, а тот который был под GPL под ним и останется, без согласия всех авторов перелицензирование не выполняется независимо от Вашего желания. Будет смесь лицензий и сложно понять, что можно копировать, а что нет (если менять оригинальные файлы).
                                                                            • 0
                                                                              Стало понятнее, спасибо.
                                                                      • НЛО прилетело и опубликовало эту надпись здесь
                                                                        • 0
                                                                          Спасибо, добавил. Удивительно, но оказалась очень человеко-читаемая лицензия, особенно на контрасте с жуткой EPL.
                                                                          • НЛО прилетело и опубликовало эту надпись здесь
                                                                            • 0
                                                                              Не спорю, но я с ней не сталкивался, поэтому не могу рассказать о тонкостях ее применения. А Beerware и WTFPL я добавил после появления в комментариях, в основном, чтобы указать на недостатки. Может быть, кто-нибудь в итоге передумает их использовать.
                                                                        • НЛО прилетело и опубликовало эту надпись здесь
                                                                          • 0
                                                                            Добавил линк в статью.
                                                                            • НЛО прилетело и опубликовало эту надпись здесь
                                                                              • 0
                                                                                Огромное спасибо за эту ссылку. Жаль не могу плюсовать в карму
                                                                                • 0
                                                                                  Мне тоже непонятно, как я мог не знать про этот сайт. Добавил эту ссылку в начало статьи, спасибо.
                                                                            • +1
                                                                              Вот тут еще добрый человек с ЛОРа разместил Практическое руководство по соответствию GPL:
                                                                              tim4dev.com/2014/11/compliance-gpl-1/
                                                                              tim4dev.com/2014/11/compliance-gpl-2/
                                                                              tim4dev.com/2014/11/compliance-gpl-3/
                                                                            • 0
                                                                              А у меня есть вопрос по авторскому праву. Как известно, у автора есть неимущественное право на защиту произведения, включая его название, от всякого искажения или иного посягательства, способного нанести ущерб чести и достоинству автора.
                                                                              Как известно, программный код приравнивается к художественным произведениям (во всяком случае у нас, в Беларуси), а неимущественные права есть только у автора и не могут передаваться.

                                                                              Вопрос такой: может ли разработчик, который написал программу/часть программы запретить изменять свой код? (под разным предлогом)
                                                                            • 0
                                                                              del
                                                                              • 0
                                                                                Тема не раскрыта. Весьма поверхностно. Как выбирать — непонятно.

                                                                                LGPL — это надстройка над GPL, и требует ее наличия в проекте.

                                                                                Чего-чего требует?

                                                                                Динамическая компоновка не требует открывать исходные коды. Со статической компоновкой сложнее, при ее использовании необходимо предоставлять вашу программу в объектной форме (исходные коды не обязательны), для того чтобы пользователь мог сам изменить библиотеку и перелинковать бинарник.

                                                                                В лицензии это не оговорено. Различия между динамической и статической линковкой — это фантазии FSF, которые не были обоснованы в суде. Есть альтернативные мнения, в том числе мнение Линуса.

                                                                                GNU рекомендует применять эту лицензию только в том случае, если применение вместо нее обычной GPL приведет к тому, что библиотеку перестанут использовать, заменив на аналогичную.

                                                                                Опять-таки, это левая рекомендация. В современном мире побеждают пермиссивные лицензии, которые ещё значительнее увеличивают популярность библиотеки.

                                                                                Мы рекомендуем разработчикам подумать о применении GNU AGPL для любых программ, которые обычно выполняются в сети.

                                                                                Читать: «Если вас замучала паранойя при разработке веб-программ, ограда — здесь». AGPL практически не существует в окружающем мире, поэтому рекомендовать её хоть для чего-то — занятие странное. И уж тем более для веб-программ, где традиция основательно смещена в сторону пермиссивных лицензий.

                                                                                Но если вы все же меняете код, то обязаны предоставить доступ к измененному вами коду под все той же MPL 2.0.

                                                                                Лицензией MPL заражаются файлы, а не проекты, в отличие от (L)GPL. Если изменить файл, он должен остаться под MPL. Если добавить — ограничений нет.

                                                                                Также стоит добавить в проекта файл LICENSE с текстом лицензии.

                                                                                Это верно для всех лицензий, а не только для одной.

                                                                                По просьбе kidar2 добавляю лицензию EPL. Это копилефтная лицензия, но она не совместима с GNU GPL.

                                                                                И поэтому бесполезна чуть менее, чем полностью. Копилефтная лицензия должна быть одна (или совместимое семейство), иначе копилефтность создаёт слишком много проблем. Даже из-за несовместимости GPLv2 и GPLv3 куча проблем, вплоть до переписывания проектов.

                                                                                И вполне подходит для небольших проектов.

                                                                                Очень смешно звучит подобное ограничение в свете большого количества крупных проектов под MIT.

                                                                                когда вам необходима разрешительная лицензия

                                                                                Тема сисек не раскрыта. Вы так и не объяснили, в чём профит от пермиссивных лицензий.

                                                                                BSD

                                                                                Забыли про деление на 2-clause и 3-clause (есть не только старая 4-clause).

                                                                                WTFPL Version 2

                                                                                В тексте этой «лицензии» больше мусора про правила использования лицензии, чем слов по сути. Я использую модификацию без хлама.

                                                                                Вследствие подобных нюансов, появились лицензии подобные следующей.

                                                                                Ещё Unlicense есть. Для прагматичных минималистов. CC0 тоже не все любят.
                                                                                • +1
                                                                                  Тема не раскрыта. Весьма поверхностно. Как выбирать — непонятно.

                                                                                  Вы имеете полное право поставить статье минус. А за конструктивную часть критики — спасибо.

                                                                                  LGPL — это надстройка над GPL, и требует ее наличия в проекте.

                                                                                  Чего-чего требует?

                                                                                  Поправил, спасибо.

                                                                                  В лицензии это не оговорено. Различия между динамической и статической линковкой — это фантазии FSF, которые не были обоснованы в суде. Есть альтернативные мнения, в том числе мнение Линуса.

                                                                                  Поправил.

                                                                                  Лицензией MPL заражаются файлы, а не проекты, в отличие от (L)GPL. Если изменить файл, он должен остаться под MPL. Если добавить — ограничений нет.

                                                                                  Добавил в описание.

                                                                                  Также стоит добавить в проекта файл LICENSE с текстом лицензии.

                                                                                  И мной это явно указано для всех лицензий, кроме тех, где я даю внешний линк на инстуркцию по их применению.

                                                                                  И вполне подходит для небольших проектов.

                                                                                  Очень смешно звучит подобное ограничение в свете большого количества крупных проектов под MIT.

                                                                                  Поправил.

                                                                                  Забыли про деление на 2-clause и 3-clause (есть не только старая 4-clause).

                                                                                  Добавил в статью упоминание 2-clause BSD.

                                                                                  Ещё Unlicense есть. Для прагматичных минималистов. CC0 тоже не все любят.

                                                                                  Добавил Unlicense, спасибо. Но, она таки проблемна.

                                                                                  По остальной части Вашего комментария. Я так понял, что Вы не любите копилефтные лицензии, и любите разрешительные. Это Ваше право. В статье я не ставил перед собой задачи пропагандировать те или иные лицензии. Каждый может выбрать сам, что ему больше подходит. Для этого я привел список наиболее известных лицензий (и добавил к ним озвученные в комментариях) и постарался кратко описать, какие требования они накладывают, как их применять и какие проблемы с ними существуют.

                                                                                  И, Ваш комментарий я не минусовал.
                                                                                • +1
                                                                                  Было бы неплохо, если бы кто-нибудь еще расписал механику работы с контрибьюторами, про передачу прав, цифровое подписание соглашений и прочее, может отдельным топиком… :)
                                                                                  • 0
                                                                                    JFYI есть забавная лицензия JSON, которая признана несовместимой с GPL и считается «несвободной». Реально же она лишь запрещает использовать ПО в плохих целях:

                                                                                    The Software shall be used for Good, not Evil.


                                                                                    (AFAIR у автора были проблемы с распространением модлей json для python по этому поводу.)

                                                                                    Относительно beerware, как заметил один мой коллега, существуют трудности реализацией «купить пива при встрече». Т.е. допустим один из вариантов проблемы, я сказал что куплю чуваку пива, а при случайной встрече не признал его =)
                                                                                    • 0
                                                                                      Относительно beerware, как заметил один мой коллега, существуют трудности реализацией «купить пива при встрече». Т.е. допустим один из вариантов проблемы, я сказал что куплю чуваку пива, а при случайной встрече не признал его =)

                                                                                      Кажется, это не относится к beerware. Так говорили в общем случае о подобных лицензиях и есть подозрение, что случаев было достаточно, так как мне встречалось обсуждение «при встрече» несколько раз в иных статьях о лицензиях. Тут по тексту «can», так что это опционально и ни к чему не должно обязывать.
                                                                                      • 0
                                                                                        Чтобы было понятно, чем плоха лицензия JSON, попробуйте дать определение Добру и Злу.
                                                                                      • +1
                                                                                        свободные — с целью предоставить возможность безвозмездно пользоваться плодами вашего труда

                                                                                        В случае копилефт лицензий это не совсем так. Основная задача таких лицензий не просто «предоставить возможность безвозмездно пользоваться», а именно поощрять вклад. Т.е. это не просто «пожертвование во благо общества», как CC0 или даже BSD/MIT, но об этом забывают/упускают/не упоминают.
                                                                                        • 0
                                                                                          Ещё boost и Zlib, тоже очень-очень разрешающие :)
                                                                                          • +1
                                                                                            Не до конца понятно, зачем вообще прилагать к коду текст лицензии. Какие могут быть последствия, если не указывать лицензию?
                                                                                            • +1
                                                                                              Очевидно, двоякая трактовка.
                                                                                              • 0
                                                                                                Ваш комментарий ничего не проясняет. Двоякая — между чем и чем?
                                                                                              • 0
                                                                                                Для Вас, если Вы выложили код: с вероятностью близкой к единице — никаких. Для того, кто воспользуется Вашим кодом — самые любые. Иначе говоря, если Вы выложили некий код в публичный доступ без лицензии, то кто-либо другой не имеет прав им пользоваться, так как Вы ему эти права никаким образом не предоставили. А раз прав у него нет, то он нарушит закон, если использует этот код. За что и могут быть последствия. Поэтому, в общем случае, кодом без лицензии пользоваться не будут, исключая тех, кому закон это разрешает (fair use в США) или тех, кто не следует закону по разным причинам (преступники, спецслужбы, ну или там дети и другие люди, не знакомые с авторским правом и тп).
                                                                                                • 0
                                                                                                  Спасибо, теперь всё понятно. Не очевидно, что то, что находится в открытом доступе, по умолчанию запрещено к использованию.
                                                                                                  • 0
                                                                                                    Это-то как раз вполне очевидно: куча сорцов, от Windows NT до «сталкера», вполне себе в открытом доступе (т.е. вам ничего не мешает их найти и скачать), но вот как-то легально использовать их может быть проблематично.
                                                                                              • +1
                                                                                                Кроме того, существует и двухпунктовая лицензия BSD, [...] и эта версия практически совпадает по функциональности с лицензией MIT. GNU советуют вместо лицензии BSD использовать MIT, чтобы исключить путаницу с тем, какая именно версия лицензии BSD используется.
                                                                                                Мне всегда казалось странным, когда MIT фактически приравнивают к 2-clause BSD, и тем более такая позиция GNU/FSF. MIT разрешает sublicense (а не только redistribution and use) и не требует явно указывать авторские права в сорцах и бинарниках. В некотором приближении MIT можно считать 0-clause BSD с возможностью перелицензирования, но все-таки достаточно отличающейся от BSD лицензией.
                                                                                                • 0
                                                                                                  Насчет sublicense сломано много копий и в англоязычной части интернета. После беглого гугления я нашел три варианта трактовки:
                                                                                                  — да, можно перевыпускать чужой код под MIT и под другими лицензиями,
                                                                                                  — да, как бы можно, но лицензия требует сохранять ее текст, а, следовательно, можно только добавлять дополнительные ограничения к ней, но никак не подменять ее полностью,
                                                                                                  — нет, нельзя, это просто означает, что Вы имеете право передавать код далее под той же лицензией со всеми правами, полученными по ней.

                                                                                                  Мне видится наиболее близким к действительности второй вариант. А это означает, что MIT не так уж сильно и отличается от BSD, ввиду чего их и считают практически идентичными даже юристы из GNU.
                                                                                                  • 0
                                                                                                    С юристами GNU, конечно, сложно спорить; у меня нет причин сомневаться их компетентности.

                                                                                                    И тем не менее: описанная вами вторая трактовка кажется вполне корректной, но мне все-таки непонятно, как MIT защищает продукт (код) от перелицензирования под лицензией, которая с одной стороны 1) соблюдает условия MIT, т.е. указывает оригинальный copyright; 2) явно разрешает (или даже требует) дальнейшее использование оного без указания копирайта вообще (см. мой комментарий выше).

                                                                                                    Единственное явное ограничение MIT — [t]he above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software — ничего не говорит о том, что их необходимо сохранять «по всей цепочке».
                                                                                                    • 0
                                                                                                      Ну вот, в цитате же и написано:
                                                                                                      and this permission notice
                                                                                                      То есть, требуется копировать не только строчку с копирайтом, но и текст лицензии до waiver'а внизу (это где заглавными буквами про отказ от ответственности). А это значит, что тот же набор требований окажется и в следующих «звеньях цепочки», по Вашей терминологии.
                                                                                                      • 0
                                                                                                        Смотрите, я взял код MIT и пишу:
                                                                                                        Copyright 2015 Original Copyright Holders (hey guys, thanks for MIT!)
                                                                                                        Permission is hereby granted, [...]
                                                                                                        The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
                                                                                                        [ MY COOL LICENSE NAME ]
                                                                                                        Permission is hereby granted to do whatever you want: I've relicensed it, it's allowed per the above note.
                                                                                                        Или так не получится?
                                                                                                        • 0
                                                                                                          Скорее всего — нет. А так, как Вы написали — точно нет.

                                                                                                          Во-первых, то, что там под тремя точками скрывается, оно должно быть явно текстом прописано, так, как этого требует лицензия.

                                                                                                          Во-вторых, и это основное, как раз этот отсутствующий кусок и не дает Вам возможности написать to do whatever you want, так как в таком случае Вы пытаетесь дать кому-то больше прав, чем у Вас есть — в этой скрытой части текста они все перечислены, как и ограничения, при которых у Вас есть эти права.

                                                                                                          В-третьих, не relicensed, а sublicensed. Если relicensed — то это как бы уже явно нарушение лицензии, так как такого права Вам не давали.

                                                                                                          Ну и, в четвертых: значение глагола to sublicense трактуется по-разному даже англоязычными людьми. Тут нужно американских юристов спрашивать.
                                                                                                • 0
                                                                                                  Кстати насчет sublicensed vs. relicensed верное замечание; возможно, в этом все и дело. (Троеточия, конечно же, использовались лишь с целью укоротить комментарий до сути.)

                                                                                                  Извините, что ответил не в ту ветку. :-(
                                                                                                  • 0

                                                                                                    Сайт про выбор лицензии от GitHub:
                                                                                                    https://choosealicense.com/

                                                                                                    • 0

                                                                                                      Software Licenses in Plain English:
                                                                                                      https://tldrlegal.com/

                                                                                                      • 0

                                                                                                        Также неплохо было бы указать, под какими лицензиями я могу распространять ПО, скомпилированное различными компиляторами: GCC, MinGW, LLVM/Clang, Visual Studio и другими.

                                                                                                        • 0
                                                                                                          А ещё хотелось бы прочитать, какова практика изменения лицензий — как часто в России и в мире публикуют софт с договором (лицензией), похожим на одну из этих именованных «стандартных» лиценизий, но отличающимся в каких-либо деталях.

                                                                                                          Например, ведь ничего не мешает ту Beerware написать от своего имени, и никаких проблем не иметь с запретом на авторство? Или текст лицензии тоже лицензирован, и просто так брать его и менять под себя запрещено лицензией на текст лицензии??

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