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13 ноября 2014 в 11:36

Разработка → Лицензия для вашего open-source проекта

В этой статье я хочу немного поговорить об авторском праве и свободных лицензиях на ПО. Текст является результатом самостоятельного выбора лицензий и их применения к своим проектам.

Статья будет полезна тем, кто хочет:

— в общих чертах понять, что такое авторское право (но лучше обратиться к юристу);
— подобрать свободную лицензию для своего проекта;
— разобраться, что нужно писать в шапке файла исходного кода.

Первым делом — ссылка на LicenseIT, очень полезный сайт с описанием лицензий и особенностей их применения (в том числе в России), который я умудрился не найти при подготовке статьи. Исправляюсь. Спасибо sensboston за ссылку.


Авторское право


Для начала коротко о том, что вообще такое авторское право и лицензии.

Meanwhile in Russia

Если вы в качестве результата интеллектуальной деятельности создали некое произведение (например, программу), то в этом случае вы — его автор(ы). Вы обладаете имущественными и неимущественными правами на это произведение. Имущественные права на это произведение вы можете передать и кому-то другому, но передать неимущественные, в том числе авторство, у вас уже не получится. Быть автором — это ваше неотчуждаемое и непередаваемое право.

Даже если вы при создании произведения работали «на дядю», то и в этом случае автор вовсе не некое абстрактное ООО. Возможно, когда вы устраивались на работу, то подписывали в том числе и пункт про «отчуждение исключительных прав на результаты вашей интеллектуальной деятельности в пользу работодателя» в договоре или что-то подобное. Возможно, нет (в этом случае гуглите "Служебное произведение"). В обоих случаях автор — вы. И обладаете некоторыми правами.

Лицензии

Другой способ передачи прав на произведение — лицензия. В этом случае права не отчуждаются, они передаются в соответствии с тем, что прописано в лицензионном договоре между пользователем и правообладателем. Да, лицензия — это именно договор! Все лицензии на ПО, как коммерческие, так и свободные, представляют из себя такой договор. В нем прописано, что вы можете и что не можете делать с ПО, и как далеко вас может послать правообладатель в случае претензий. Например, лицензия может дать вам право устанавливать программу, но ограничивать это право только одним компьютером, иначе к вам приедут дяди в масках и все отберут.

Обратите внимание на важный момент: если у вас достаточно прав на произведение, то вы можете распространять его под разными лицензиями (в том числе, одновременно). Например, на вашем сайте вы можете распространять программу бесплатно под свободной лицензией, а в каком-либо магазине приложений она может продаваться за деньги под их стандартной лицензией.

Также Вы можете сменить лицензию в любое время: например, сегодня у вас на сайте программа была бесплатной под свободной лицензией, а завтра она платная и с закрытыми исходниками. Но в этом случае вы не можете заставить пользователей, скачавших программу ранее, следовать нормам новой лицензии. Это логично, ведь они получили программу по другому договору.

В мире

В целом, вышеописанное применимо к большинству стран мира. Дело в том, что благодаря нескольким международным конвенциям, законы об авторском праве в мире схожи (но есть и некоторое число стран, не подписывавших конвенции). Однако, даже при этом отличия существуют. Например, в России неимущественные права не отчуждаются. А, скажем, в Канаде можно от них отказаться, но нельзя передать. Поэтому при возможности лучше всегда консультироваться с локальным юристом.

Свободные лицензии


Определяем определение

За поиском определения я отправлю желающих на Википедию, для чего дам ссылки сразу на несколько статей:

Это не потому, что я такой злой (хотя, велосипед у меня действительно отсутствует), а потому, что для термина свободная лицензия пока нет однозначного определения. Из указанных статей можно вывести примерно следующее:

Свободной лицензией является лицензия, которая соответствует неким критериям свободного ПО. Обычно используют либо определение свободного ПО, данное Ричардом Столлманом, либо критерии Debian по определению свободного программного обеспечения, сформулированные Брюсом Перенсом. Соответственно, те лицензии, которые не являются свободными — несвободные.

На мой личный взгляд, заморачиваться с конкретными определениями нет никакого смысла, мы ведь не политики (ну, по крайней мере, я). А с практической точки зрения, основная разница между свободными и несвободными лицензиями — в целях. Несвободные лицензии применяются с целью заработать и не дать на этом заработать конкурентам, свободные — с целью предоставить возможность безвозмездно пользоваться плодами вашего труда.

Copyleft

Перед тем как приступить к описанию лицензий, нужно разобраться, что такое копилефтные и разрешительные (пермиссивные, permissive) лицензии. Копилефтными считаются свободные лицензии, требующие распространять производные продукты под такой же лицензией. То есть, если вы использовали в своей программе библиотеку под копилефтной лицензией, то вам придется распространять вашу программу под ней же. Задача же разрешительных лицензий, напротив, разрешить любое возможное использование продукта.

Основные свободные лицензии

Большой список свободных лицензий можно найти на сайте GNU.
Также, sensboston дал ссылку на еще один список с open-source лицензиями.
Здесь же я приведу список лицензий, в которому будут те лицензии, которые я считаю наиболее полезными и/или значимыми, и те, написать про которые вы предложили в комментариях.

GPLv3 (GNU General Public License Version 3)
Текст лицензии
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transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever
licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or could
give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the
Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if
the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.

  You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the
rights granted or affirmed under this License.  For example, you may
not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of
rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation
(including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that
any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for
sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.

  11. Patents.

  A "contributor" is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this
License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based.  The
work thus licensed is called the contributor's "contributor version".

  A contributor's "essential patent claims" are all patent claims
owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or
hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted
by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version,
but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a
consequence of further modification of the contributor version.  For
purposes of this definition, "control" includes the right to grant
patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of
this License.

  Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free
patent license under the contributor's essential patent claims, to
make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and
propagate the contents of its contributor version.

  In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is any express
agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent
(such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to
sue for patent infringement).  To "grant" such a patent license to a
party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a
patent against the party.

  If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license,
and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone
to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a
publicly available network server or other readily accessible means,
then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so
available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the
patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner
consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent
license to downstream recipients.  "Knowingly relying" means you have
actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the
covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work
in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that
country that you have reason to believe are valid.

  If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or
arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a
covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties
receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify
or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license
you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered
work and works based on it.

  A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within
the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is
conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are
specifically granted under this License.  You may not convey a covered
work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is
in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment
to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying
the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the
parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory
patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work
conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily
for and in connection with specific products or compilations that
contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement,
or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.

  Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting
any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may
otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.

  12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.

  If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot convey a
covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may
not convey it at all.  For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you
to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey
the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this
License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.

  13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.

  Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have
permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed
under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single
combined work, and to convey the resulting work.  The terms of this
License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work,
but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License,
section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the
combination as such.

  14. Revised Versions of this License.

  The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of
the GNU General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.

  Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the
Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General
Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the
option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered
version or of any later version published by the Free Software
Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of the
GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published
by the Free Software Foundation.

  If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future
versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy's
public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you
to choose that version for the Program.

  Later license versions may give you additional or different
permissions.  However, no additional obligations are imposed on any
author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a
later version.

  15. Disclaimer of Warranty.

  THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY
APPLICABLE LAW.  EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT
HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY
OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE.  THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM
IS WITH YOU.  SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF
ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

  16. Limitation of Liability.

  IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS
THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY
GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE
USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF
DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD
PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS),
EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
SUCH DAMAGES.

  17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

  If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided
above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms,
reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates
an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the
Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a
copy of the Program in return for a fee.

                     END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

            How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

  If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

  To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

    <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
    Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>

    This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
    it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
    the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
    (at your option) any later version.

    This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
    GNU General Public License for more details.

    You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

  If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short
notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

    <program>  Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>
    This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
    This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
    under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.

The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
parts of the General Public License.  Of course, your program's commands
might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an "about box".

  You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school,
if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary.
For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see
<http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

  The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program
into proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library, you
may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with
the library.  If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
Public License instead of this License.  But first, please read
<http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html>.
Как применять лицензии GNU со своими программами
Практическое руководство по соответствию GPL, спасибо Indexator за ссылку.
GNU GPL 3 человеческим языком, еще раз спасибо Indexator.
Самая известная из свободных лицензий. Не в том смысле, что все хорошо ее понимают, а в том, что она более всего на слуху. Так как она называется свободной, многие ошибочно считают, что код, выпущенный под GPL, можно использовать как угодно, а программы могут/должны быть только бесплатными. И то, и другое — неправда. GNU GPL — копилефтная лицензия, и требует, чтобы исходные коды производных работ были открытыми под ней же. То есть, если вы решите использовать библиотеку под GPL в вашем проекте, вам придется выложить исходники вашего проекта под GPL, что обычно неприемлемо для коммерческих разработок вам придется бесплатно предоставлять исходники проекта конечным получателям, даже если вы распространяете продукт за деньги (спасибо хабраюзеру coh за указание на неточность). Да, продажа программы лицензией вполне разрешена. Предоставлять исходники можно как вместе с программой, так и отдельно. Во втором случае бинарная версия программы должна содержать четкие инструкции по получению исходных кодов. Более подробные объяснения — перевод части официальногоGPL FAQ(еще раз спасибо, coh !).

GPLv2 (GNU General Public License Version 2)
Текст лицензии
                    GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
                       Version 2, June 1991

 Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

                            Preamble

  The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
freedom to share and change it.  By contrast, the GNU General Public
License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
software--to make sure the software is free for all its users.  This
General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it.  (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
the GNU Lesser General Public License instead.)  You can apply it to
your programs, too.

  When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.

  To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.

  For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
you have.  You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
source code.  And you must show them these terms so they know their
rights.

  We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
distribute and/or modify the software.

  Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
software.  If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
authors' reputations.

  Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
patents.  We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
program proprietary.  To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.

  The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.

                    GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
   TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION

  0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
under the terms of this General Public License.  The "Program", below,
refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
language.  (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
the term "modification".)  Each licensee is addressed as "you".

Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
covered by this License; they are outside its scope.  The act of
running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.

  1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
along with the Program.

You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.

  2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:

    a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
    stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.

    b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
    whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
    part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
    parties under the terms of this License.

    c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
    when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
    interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
    announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
    notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
    a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
    these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
    License.  (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
    does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
    the Program is not required to print an announcement.)

These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole.  If
identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
sections when you distribute them as separate works.  But when you
distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.

Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
collective works based on the Program.

In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
the scope of this License.

  3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:

    a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
    source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
    1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,

    b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
    years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
    cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
    machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
    distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
    customarily used for software interchange; or,

    c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
    to distribute corresponding source code.  (This alternative is
    allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
    received the program in object code or executable form with such
    an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)

The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
making modifications to it.  For an executable work, complete source
code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
control compilation and installation of the executable.  However, as a
special exception, the source code distributed need not include
anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
itself accompanies the executable.

If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
compelled to copy the source along with the object code.

  4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.

  5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
signed it.  However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
distribute the Program or its derivative works.  These actions are
prohibited by law if you do not accept this License.  Therefore, by
modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
the Program or works based on it.

  6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
these terms and conditions.  You may not impose any further
restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
this License.

  7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot
distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
may not distribute the Program at all.  For example, if a patent
license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.

If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
circumstances.

It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
implemented by public license practices.  Many people have made
generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
impose that choice.

This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
be a consequence of the rest of this License.

  8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
countries not thus excluded.  In such case, this License incorporates
the limitation as if written in the body of this License.

  9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
of the General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.

Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the Program
specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of
this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
Foundation.

  10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
to ask for permission.  For software which is copyrighted by the Free
Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
make exceptions for this.  Our decision will be guided by the two goals
of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.

                            NO WARRANTY

  11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW.  EXCEPT WHEN
OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  THE ENTIRE RISK AS
TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU.  SHOULD THE
PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

  12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

                     END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

            How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

  If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

  To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

    <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
    Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>

    This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
    it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
    the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
    (at your option) any later version.

    This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
    GNU General Public License for more details.

    You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
    with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
    51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
when it starts in an interactive mode:

    Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author
    Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
    This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
    under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.

The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
parts of the General Public License.  Of course, the commands you use may
be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
necessary.  Here is a sample; alter the names:

  Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
  `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.

  <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
  Ty Coon, President of Vice

This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library, you may
consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
library.  If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
Public License instead of this License.
Как применять лицензии GNU со своими программами
Практическое руководство по соответствию GPL, спасибо Indexator за ссылку.
Как резонно заметил wholeman в комментариях, не хватает описания GNU GPL версии 2. О различиях между этими двумя версиями GPL можно почитать, например, в этой статье. Также, из комментария wholeman:
GPLv3 заметно строже и может создать некоторые проблемы автору. Например, одно из требований состоит в том, что должна быть предоставлена инструкция по установке изменённого приложения на устройство. Для приложений под iOS или WindowsPhone, где нет штатной возможности установить пакет не из магазина, выполнить такое требование проблематично.
Кроме того, стоит заметить, что большинство программ, выпущенных, под GNU GPLv2, позволяют использование на условиях более поздней версии лицензии.

И, на всякий случай: таблица совместимости лицензий GNU.

LGPLv3 (GNU Lesser General Public License Version 3, в девичестве GNU Library General Public License)
Текст лицензии
                   GNU LESSER GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
                       Version 3, 29 June 2007

 Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. <http://fsf.org/>
 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


  This version of the GNU Lesser General Public License incorporates
the terms and conditions of version 3 of the GNU General Public
License, supplemented by the additional permissions listed below.

  0. Additional Definitions.

  As used herein, "this License" refers to version 3 of the GNU Lesser
General Public License, and the "GNU GPL" refers to version 3 of the GNU
General Public License.

  "The Library" refers to a covered work governed by this License,
other than an Application or a Combined Work as defined below.

  An "Application" is any work that makes use of an interface provided
by the Library, but which is not otherwise based on the Library.
Defining a subclass of a class defined by the Library is deemed a mode
of using an interface provided by the Library.

  A "Combined Work" is a work produced by combining or linking an
Application with the Library.  The particular version of the Library
with which the Combined Work was made is also called the "Linked
Version".

  The "Minimal Corresponding Source" for a Combined Work means the
Corresponding Source for the Combined Work, excluding any source code
for portions of the Combined Work that, considered in isolation, are
based on the Application, and not on the Linked Version.

  The "Corresponding Application Code" for a Combined Work means the
object code and/or source code for the Application, including any data
and utility programs needed for reproducing the Combined Work from the
Application, but excluding the System Libraries of the Combined Work.

  1. Exception to Section 3 of the GNU GPL.

  You may convey a covered work under sections 3 and 4 of this License
without being bound by section 3 of the GNU GPL.

  2. Conveying Modified Versions.

  If you modify a copy of the Library, and, in your modifications, a
facility refers to a function or data to be supplied by an Application
that uses the facility (other than as an argument passed when the
facility is invoked), then you may convey a copy of the modified
version:

   a) under this License, provided that you make a good faith effort to
   ensure that, in the event an Application does not supply the
   function or data, the facility still operates, and performs
   whatever part of its purpose remains meaningful, or

   b) under the GNU GPL, with none of the additional permissions of
   this License applicable to that copy.

  3. Object Code Incorporating Material from Library Header Files.

  The object code form of an Application may incorporate material from
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code under terms of your choice, provided that, if the incorporated
material is not limited to numerical parameters, data structure
layouts and accessors, or small macros, inline functions and templates
(ten or fewer lines in length), you do both of the following:

   a) Give prominent notice with each copy of the object code that the
   Library is used in it and that the Library and its use are
   covered by this License.

   b) Accompany the object code with a copy of the GNU GPL and this license
   document.

  4. Combined Works.

  You may convey a Combined Work under terms of your choice that,
taken together, effectively do not restrict modification of the
portions of the Library contained in the Combined Work and reverse
engineering for debugging such modifications, if you also do each of
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   b) Accompany the Combined Work with a copy of the GNU GPL and this license
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   c) For a Combined Work that displays copyright notices during
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   d) Do one of the following:

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       1) Use a suitable shared library mechanism for linking with the
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   e) Provide Installation Information, but only if you would otherwise
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   Application with a modified version of the Linked Version. (If
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   Information in the manner specified by section 6 of the GNU GPL
   for conveying Corresponding Source.)

  5. Combined Libraries.

  You may place library facilities that are a work based on the
Library side by side in a single library together with other library
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License, and convey such a combined library under terms of your
choice, if you do both of the following:

   a) Accompany the combined library with a copy of the same work based
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   b) Give prominent notice with the combined library that part of it
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  6. Revised Versions of the GNU Lesser General Public License.

  The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
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  Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the
Library as you received it specifies that a certain numbered version
of the GNU Lesser General Public License "or any later version"
applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and
conditions either of that published version or of any later version
published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Library as you
received it does not specify a version number of the GNU Lesser
General Public License, you may choose any version of the GNU Lesser
General Public License ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

  If the Library as you received it specifies that a proxy can decide
whether future versions of the GNU Lesser General Public License shall
apply, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of any version is
permanent authorization for you to choose that version for the
Library.
Как применять лицензии GNU со своими программами
LGPL — это надстройка над GPL, и требует наличия текстов обеих лицензий в проекте. Отличие LGPL от обычной GPL заключается в том, что библиотеки под этой лицензией разрешается использовать для создания программ под другими лицензиями путем компоновки. Согласно GNU FAQ, динамическая компоновка не требует открывать исходные коды, а при статической необходимо предоставлять вашу программу в объектной форме (исходные коды не обязательны), для того чтобы пользователь мог сам изменить библиотеку и перелинковать бинарник. Впрочем, как заметил Athari, это не было обосновано в суде. GNU рекомендует применять эту лицензию только в том случае, если применение вместо нее обычной GPL приведет к тому, что библиотеку перестанут использовать, заменив на аналогичную.

GNU AGPLv3 (GNU Affero, GNU Affero General Public License Version 3)
Текст лицензии
                    GNU AFFERO GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
                       Version 3, 19 November 2007

 Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. <http://fsf.org/>
 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

                            Preamble

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  When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
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  Developers that use our General Public Licenses protect your rights
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  The GNU Affero General Public License is designed specifically to
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  If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license,
and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone
to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a
publicly available network server or other readily accessible means,
then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so
available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the
patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner
consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent
license to downstream recipients.  "Knowingly relying" means you have
actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the
covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work
in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that
country that you have reason to believe are valid.

  If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or
arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a
covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties
receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify
or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license
you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered
work and works based on it.

  A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within
the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is
conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are
specifically granted under this License.  You may not convey a covered
work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is
in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment
to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying
the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the
parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory
patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work
conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily
for and in connection with specific products or compilations that
contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement,
or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.

  Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting
any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may
otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.

  12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.

  If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot convey a
covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may
not convey it at all.  For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you
to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey
the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this
License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.

  13. Remote Network Interaction; Use with the GNU General Public License.

  Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, if you modify the
Program, your modified version must prominently offer all users
interacting with it remotely through a computer network (if your version
supports such interaction) an opportunity to receive the Corresponding
Source of your version by providing access to the Corresponding Source
from a network server at no charge, through some standard or customary
means of facilitating copying of software.  This Corresponding Source
shall include the Corresponding Source for any work covered by version 3
of the GNU General Public License that is incorporated pursuant to the
following paragraph.

  Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have
permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed
under version 3 of the GNU General Public License into a single
combined work, and to convey the resulting work.  The terms of this
License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work,
but the work with which it is combined will remain governed by version
3 of the GNU General Public License.

  14. Revised Versions of this License.

  The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of
the GNU Affero General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions
will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.

  Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the
Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU Affero General
Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the
option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered
version or of any later version published by the Free Software
Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of the
GNU Affero General Public License, you may choose any version ever published
by the Free Software Foundation.

  If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future
versions of the GNU Affero General Public License can be used, that proxy's
public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you
to choose that version for the Program.

  Later license versions may give you additional or different
permissions.  However, no additional obligations are imposed on any
author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a
later version.

  15. Disclaimer of Warranty.

  THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY
APPLICABLE LAW.  EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT
HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY
OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE.  THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM
IS WITH YOU.  SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF
ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

  16. Limitation of Liability.

  IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS
THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY
GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE
USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF
DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD
PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS),
EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
SUCH DAMAGES.

  17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

  If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided
above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms,
reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates
an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the
Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a
copy of the Program in return for a fee.

                     END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

            How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

  If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

  To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

    <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
    Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>

    This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
    it under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as published by
    the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
    (at your option) any later version.

    This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
    GNU Affero General Public License for more details.

    You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
    along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

  If your software can interact with users remotely through a computer
network, you should also make sure that it provides a way for users to
get its source.  For example, if your program is a web application, its
interface could display a "Source" link that leads users to an archive
of the code.  There are many ways you could offer source, and different
solutions will be better for different programs; see section 13 for the
specific requirements.

  You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school,
if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary.
For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU AGPL, see
<http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
Как применять лицензии GNU со своими программами
Спасибо coh и lorus за то, что о ней вспомнили. Это копилефтная лицензия.

Цитируя Различные лицензии и комментарии к ним:
Ее условия фактически состоят из условий GPLv3 с дополнительным параграфом в разделе 13, который позволяет пользователям, взаимодействующим с лицензируемой программой по сети, получать исходный текст этой программы. Мы рекомендуем разработчикам подумать о применении GNU AGPL для любых программ, которые обычно выполняются в сети.
Есть определенные нюансы совместимости с другими версиями GPL:
Обратите внимание, что GNU AGPL не совместима с GPLv2. Она также формально не совместима с GPLv3 в узком смысле: вы не можете взять исходные тексты, выпущенные на условиях GNU AGPL, и передавать или изменять их, как вам угодно, на условиях GPLv3, и наоборот. Однако вам позволено комбинировать раздельные модули или файлы исходного текста, выпущенные под обеими этими лицензиями, в едином проекте, что предоставит многим программистам разрешение на все действия, нужные им для того, чтобы делать какие им угодно программы.

MPL v2.0 (Mozilla Public License
Version 2.0)
Текст лицензии
Mozilla Public License
Version 2.0
1. Definitions

1.1. “Contributor”

    means each individual or legal entity that creates, contributes to
the creation of, or owns Covered Software.  1.2. “Contributor Version”

    means the combination of the Contributions of others (if any) used
by a Contributor and that particular Contributor’s Contribution.
1.3. “Contribution”

    means Covered Software of a particular Contributor.  1.4. “Covered
Software”

    means Source Code Form to which the initial Contributor has
attached the notice in Exhibit A, the Executable Form of such Source
Code Form, and Modifications of such Source Code Form, in each case
including portions thereof.  1.5. “Incompatible With Secondary
Licenses”

    means

        that the initial Contributor has attached the notice described
        in Exhibit B to the Covered Software; or

        that the Covered Software was made available under the terms
        of version 1.1 or earlier of the License, but not also under
        the terms of a Secondary License.

1.6. “Executable Form”

    means any form of the work other than Source Code Form.
1.7. “Larger Work”

    means a work that combines Covered Software with other material,
in a separate file or files, that is not Covered Software.
1.8. “License”

    means this document.
1.9. “Licensable”

    means having the right to grant, to the maximum extent possible,
whether at the time of the initial grant or subsequently, any and all
of the rights conveyed by this License.  1.10. “Modifications”

    means any of the following:

        any file in Source Code Form that results from an addition to,
        deletion from, or modification of the contents of Covered
        Software; or

        any new file in Source Code Form that contains any Covered Software.

1.11. “Patent Claims” of a Contributor

    means any patent claim(s), including without limitation, method,
process, and apparatus claims, in any patent Licensable by such
Contributor that would be infringed, but for the grant of the License,
by the making, using, selling, offering for sale, having made, import,
or transfer of either its Contributions or its Contributor Version.
1.12. “Secondary License”

    means either the GNU General Public License, Version 2.0, the GNU
Lesser General Public License, Version 2.1, the GNU Affero General
Public License, Version 3.0, or any later versions of those licenses.
1.13. “Source Code Form”

    means the form of the work preferred for making modifications.
1.14. “You” (or “Your”)

    means an individual or a legal entity exercising rights under this
    License. For legal entities, “You” includes any entity that
    controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with
    You. For purposes of this definition, “control” means (a) the
    power, direct or indirect, to cause the direction or management of
    such entity, whether by contract or otherwise, or (b) ownership of
    more than fifty percent (50%) of the outstanding shares or
    beneficial ownership of such entity.

2. License Grants and Conditions
2.1. Grants

Each Contributor hereby grants You a world-wide, royalty-free,
non-exclusive license:

    under intellectual property rights (other than patent or
    trademark) Licensable by such Contributor to use, reproduce, make
    available, modify, display, perform, distribute, and otherwise
    exploit its Contributions, either on an unmodified basis, with
    Modifications, or as part of a Larger Work; and

    under Patent Claims of such Contributor to make, use, sell, offer
    for sale, have made, import, and otherwise transfer either its
    Contributions or its Contributor Version.

2.2. Effective Date

The licenses granted in Section 2.1 with respect to any Contribution
become effective for each Contribution on the date the Contributor
first distributes such Contribution.  2.3. Limitations on Grant Scope

The licenses granted in this Section 2 are the only rights granted
under this License. No additional rights or licenses will be implied
from the distribution or licensing of Covered Software under this
License. Notwithstanding Section 2.1(b) above, no patent license is
granted by a Contributor:

    for any code that a Contributor has removed from Covered Software; or

    for infringements caused by: (i) Your and any other third party’s
    modifications of Covered Software, or (ii) the combination of its
    Contributions with other software (except as part of its
    Contributor Version); or

    under Patent Claims infringed by Covered Software in the absence
    of its Contributions.

This License does not grant any rights in the trademarks, service
marks, or logos of any Contributor (except as may be necessary to
comply with the notice requirements in Section 3.4).  2.4. Subsequent
Licenses

No Contributor makes additional grants as a result of Your choice to
distribute the Covered Software under a subsequent version of this
License (see Section 10.2) or under the terms of a Secondary License
(if permitted under the terms of Section 3.3).  2.5. Representation

Each Contributor represents that the Contributor believes its
Contributions are its original creation(s) or it has sufficient rights
to grant the rights to its Contributions conveyed by this License.
2.6. Fair Use

This License is not intended to limit any rights You have under
applicable copyright doctrines of fair use, fair dealing, or other
equivalents.  2.7. Conditions

Sections 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4 are conditions of the licenses granted
in Section 2.1.  3. Responsibilities 3.1. Distribution of Source Form

All distribution of Covered Software in Source Code Form, including
any Modifications that You create or to which You contribute, must be
under the terms of this License. You must inform recipients that the
Source Code Form of the Covered Software is governed by the terms of
this License, and how they can obtain a copy of this License. You may
not attempt to alter or restrict the recipients’ rights in the Source
Code Form.  3.2. Distribution of Executable Form

If You distribute Covered Software in Executable Form then:

    such Covered Software must also be made available in Source Code
    Form, as described in Section 3.1, and You must inform recipients
    of the Executable Form how they can obtain a copy of such Source
    Code Form by reasonable means in a timely manner, at a charge no
    more than the cost of distribution to the recipient; and

    You may distribute such Executable Form under the terms of this
    License, or sublicense it under different terms, provided that the
    license for the Executable Form does not attempt to limit or alter
    the recipients’ rights in the Source Code Form under this License.

3.3. Distribution of a Larger Work

You may create and distribute a Larger Work under terms of Your
choice, provided that You also comply with the requirements of this
License for the Covered Software. If the Larger Work is a combination
of Covered Software with a work governed by one or more Secondary
Licenses, and the Covered Software is not Incompatible With Secondary
Licenses, this License permits You to additionally distribute such
Covered Software under the terms of such Secondary License(s), so that
the recipient of the Larger Work may, at their option, further
distribute the Covered Software under the terms of either this License
or such Secondary License(s).  3.4. Notices

You may not remove or alter the substance of any license notices
(including copyright notices, patent notices, disclaimers of warranty,
or limitations of liability) contained within the Source Code Form of
the Covered Software, except that You may alter any license notices to
the extent required to remedy known factual inaccuracies.
3.5. Application of Additional Terms

You may choose to offer, and to charge a fee for, warranty, support,
indemnity or liability obligations to one or more recipients of
Covered Software. However, You may do so only on Your own behalf, and
not on behalf of any Contributor. You must make it absolutely clear
that any such warranty, support, indemnity, or liability obligation is
offered by You alone, and You hereby agree to indemnify every
Contributor for any liability incurred by such Contributor as a result
of warranty, support, indemnity or liability terms You offer. You may
include additional disclaimers of warranty and limitations of
liability specific to any jurisdiction.  4. Inability to Comply Due to
Statute or Regulation

If it is impossible for You to comply with any of the terms of this
License with respect to some or all of the Covered Software due to
statute, judicial order, or regulation then You must: (a) comply with
the terms of this License to the maximum extent possible; and (b)
describe the limitations and the code they affect. Such description
must be placed in a text file included with all distributions of the
Covered Software under this License. Except to the extent prohibited
by statute or regulation, such description must be sufficiently
detailed for a recipient of ordinary skill to be able to understand
it.  5. Termination

5.1. The rights granted under this License will terminate
automatically if You fail to comply with any of its terms. However, if
You become compliant, then the rights granted under this License from
a particular Contributor are reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and
until such Contributor explicitly and finally terminates Your grants,
and (b) on an ongoing basis, if such Contributor fails to notify You
of the non-compliance by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after
You have come back into compliance. Moreover, Your grants from a
particular Contributor are reinstated on an ongoing basis if such
Contributor notifies You of the non-compliance by some reasonable
means, this is the first time You have received notice of
non-compliance with this License from such Contributor, and You become
compliant prior to 30 days after Your receipt of the notice.

5.2. If You initiate litigation against any entity by asserting a
patent infringement claim (excluding declaratory judgment actions,
counter-claims, and cross-claims) alleging that a Contributor Version
directly or indirectly infringes any patent, then the rights granted
to You by any and all Contributors for the Covered Software under
Section 2.1 of this License shall terminate.

5.3. In the event of termination under Sections 5.1 or 5.2 above, all
end user license agreements (excluding distributors and resellers)
which have been validly granted by You or Your distributors under this
License prior to termination shall survive termination.  6. Disclaimer
of Warranty

Covered Software is provided under this License on an “as is” basis,
without warranty of any kind, either expressed, implied, or statutory,
including, without limitation, warranties that the Covered Software is
free of defects, merchantable, fit for a particular purpose or
non-infringing. The entire risk as to the quality and performance of
the Covered Software is with You. Should any Covered Software prove
defective in any respect, You (not any Contributor) assume the cost of
any necessary servicing, repair, or correction. This disclaimer of
warranty constitutes an essential part of this License. No use of any
Covered Software is authorized under this License except under this
disclaimer.  7. Limitation of Liability

Under no circumstances and under no legal theory, whether tort
(including negligence), contract, or otherwise, shall any Contributor,
or anyone who distributes Covered Software as permitted above, be
liable to You for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or
consequential damages of any character including, without limitation,
damages for lost profits, loss of goodwill, work stoppage, computer
failure or malfunction, or any and all other commercial damages or
losses, even if such party shall have been informed of the possibility
of such damages. This limitation of liability shall not apply to
liability for death or personal injury resulting from such party’s
negligence to the extent applicable law prohibits such
limitation. Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion or
limitation of incidental or consequential damages, so this exclusion
and limitation may not apply to You.  8. Litigation

Any litigation relating to this License may be brought only in the
courts of a jurisdiction where the defendant maintains its principal
place of business and such litigation shall be governed by laws of
that jurisdiction, without reference to its conflict-of-law
provisions. Nothing in this Section shall prevent a party’s ability to
bring cross-claims or counter-claims.  9. Miscellaneous

This License represents the complete agreement concerning the subject
matter hereof. If any provision of this License is held to be
unenforceable, such provision shall be reformed only to the extent
necessary to make it enforceable. Any law or regulation which provides
that the language of a contract shall be construed against the drafter
shall not be used to construe this License against a Contributor.
10. Versions of the License 10.1. New Versions

Mozilla Foundation is the license steward. Except as provided in
Section 10.3, no one other than the license steward has the right to
modify or publish new versions of this License. Each version will be
given a distinguishing version number.  10.2. Effect of New Versions

You may distribute the Covered Software under the terms of the version
of the License under which You originally received the Covered
Software, or under the terms of any subsequent version published by
the license steward.  10.3. Modified Versions

If you create software not governed by this License, and you want to
create a new license for such software, you may create and use a
modified version of this License if you rename the license and remove
any references to the name of the license steward (except to note that
such modified license differs from this License).  10.4. Distributing
Source Code Form that is Incompatible With Secondary Licenses

If You choose to distribute Source Code Form that is Incompatible With
Secondary Licenses under the terms of this version of the License, the
notice described in Exhibit B of this License must be attached.
Exhibit A - Source Code Form License Notice

    This Source Code Form is subject to the terms of the Mozilla
    Public License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the MPL was not distributed
    with this file, You can obtain one at http://mozilla.org/MPL/2.0/.

If it is not possible or desirable to put the notice in a particular
file, then You may include the notice in a location (such as a LICENSE
file in a relevant directory) where a recipient would be likely to
look for such a notice.

You may add additional accurate notices of copyright ownership.
Exhibit B - “Incompatible With Secondary Licenses” Notice

    This Source Code Form is “Incompatible With Secondary Licenses”,
    as defined by the Mozilla Public License, v. 2.0.
Комментарий от lorus
Для проекта open source стоит ещё рассмотреть MPL 2.0. Своеобразная лицензия, что-то среднее между LGPL и BSD. От LGPL отличается отсутствием заморочек со статическим связыванием. Это может оказаться важным для программ на ЯП, в которых динамическое связывание не предусмотрено.
В случае использования неизмененной библиотеки под MPL 2.0, как части большего проекта, нужно всего лишь указывать, где можно получить исходники этой библиотеки. Но если вы все же меняете код, то обязаны предоставить доступ к измененному вами коду под все той же MPL 2.0. То есть, лицензия копилефтная. Здесь небольшое уточнение от Athari:
Лицензией MPL заражаются файлы, а не проекты, в отличие от (L)GPL. Если изменить файл, он должен остаться под MPL. Если добавить — ограничений нет.
В случае, если проект под GNU GPL, то необходимо сделать используемый в нем код под MPL 2.0 доступным сразу под обеими лицензиями.

Для использования этой лицензии в вашем проекте нужно добавить текст из Exhibit A лицензии
This Source Code Form is subject to the terms of the Mozilla
Public License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the MPL was not distributed
with this file, You can obtain one at http://mozilla.org/MPL/2.0/.
в качестве шапки в каждый файл исходного кода. Лицензия не требует указывать copyright в каждом файле, но и не запрещает этого. Также не забудьте добавить в проект файл LICENSE с текстом лицензии.

EPL-1.0 (Eclipse Public License Version 1.0)
Текст лицензии
Eclipse Public License - v 1.0

THE ACCOMPANYING PROGRAM IS PROVIDED UNDER THE TERMS OF THIS ECLIPSE
PUBLIC LICENSE ("AGREEMENT"). ANY USE, REPRODUCTION OR DISTRIBUTION OF
THE PROGRAM CONSTITUTES RECIPIENT'S ACCEPTANCE OF THIS AGREEMENT.

1. DEFINITIONS

"Contribution" means:

  a) in the case of the initial Contributor, the initial code and
     documentation distributed under this Agreement, and

  b) in the case of each subsequent Contributor:

    i) changes to the Program, and

    ii) additions to the Program;

where such changes and/or additions to the Program originate from and
are distributed by that particular Contributor. A Contribution
'originates' from a Contributor if it was added to the Program by such
Contributor itself or anyone acting on such Contributor's
behalf. Contributions do not include additions to the Program which:
(i) are separate modules of software distributed in conjunction with
the Program under their own license agreement, and (ii) are not
derivative works of the Program.

"Contributor" means any person or entity that distributes the Program.

"Licensed Patents" mean patent claims licensable by a Contributor
which are necessarily infringed by the use or sale of its Contribution
alone or when combined with the Program.

"Program" means the Contributions distributed in accordance with this
Agreement.

"Recipient" means anyone who receives the Program under this
Agreement, including all Contributors.

2. GRANT OF RIGHTS

  a) Subject to the terms of this Agreement, each Contributor hereby
     grants Recipient a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free
     copyright license to reproduce, prepare derivative works of,
     publicly display, publicly perform, distribute and sublicense the
     Contribution of such Contributor, if any, and such derivative
     works, in source code and object code form.

  b) Subject to the terms of this Agreement, each Contributor hereby
     grants Recipient a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent
     license under Licensed Patents to make, use, sell, offer to sell,
     import and otherwise transfer the Contribution of such
     Contributor, if any, in source code and object code form. This
     patent license shall apply to the combination of the Contribution
     and the Program if, at the time the Contribution is added by the
     Contributor, such addition of the Contribution causes such
     combination to be covered by the Licensed Patents. The patent
     license shall not apply to any other combinations which include
     the Contribution. No hardware per se is licensed hereunder.

  c) Recipient understands that although each Contributor grants the
     licenses to its Contributions set forth herein, no assurances are
     provided by any Contributor that the Program does not infringe
     the patent or other intellectual property rights of any other
     entity. Each Contributor disclaims any liability to Recipient for
     claims brought by any other entity based on infringement of
     intellectual property rights or otherwise. As a condition to
     exercising the rights and licenses granted hereunder, each
     Recipient hereby assumes sole responsibility to secure any other
     intellectual property rights needed, if any. For example, if a
     third party patent license is required to allow Recipient to
     distribute the Program, it is Recipient's responsibility to
     acquire that license before distributing the Program.

  d) Each Contributor represents that to its knowledge it has
     sufficient copyright rights in its Contribution, if any, to grant
     the copyright license set forth in this Agreement.

3. REQUIREMENTS

A Contributor may choose to distribute the Program in object code form
under its own license agreement, provided that:

  a) it complies with the terms and conditions of this Agreement; and

  b) its license agreement:

    i) effectively disclaims on behalf of all Contributors all
       warranties and conditions, express and implied, including
       warranties or conditions of title and non-infringement, and
       implied warranties or conditions of merchantability and fitness
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    ii) effectively excludes on behalf of all Contributors all
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    iii) states that any provisions which differ from this Agreement
         are offered by that Contributor alone and not by any other
         party; and

    iv) states that source code for the Program is available from such
        Contributor, and informs licensees how to obtain it in a
        reasonable manner on or through a medium customarily used for
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When the Program is made available in source code form:

  a) it must be made available under this Agreement; and

  b) a copy of this Agreement must be included with each copy of the Program.

Contributors may not remove or alter any copyright notices contained
within the Program.

Each Contributor must identify itself as the originator of its
Contribution, if any, in a manner that reasonably allows subsequent
Recipients to identify the originator of the Contribution.

4. COMMERCIAL DISTRIBUTION

Commercial distributors of software may accept certain
responsibilities with respect to end users, business partners and the
like. While this license is intended to facilitate the commercial use
of the Program, the Contributor who includes the Program in a
commercial product offering should do so in a manner which does not
create potential liability for other Contributors. Therefore, if a
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or omissions of such Commercial Contributor in connection with its
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obligations in this section do not apply to any claims or Losses
relating to any actual or alleged intellectual property
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promptly notify the Commercial Contributor in writing of such claim,
and b) allow the Commercial Contributor to control, and cooperate with
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EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY SET FORTH IN THIS AGREEMENT, THE PROGRAM IS
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EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY SET FORTH IN THIS AGREEMENT, NEITHER RECIPIENT NOR
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If Recipient institutes patent litigation against any entity
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and distribution of the Program as soon as reasonably
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but in order to avoid inconsistency the Agreement is copyrighted and
may only be modified in the following manner. The Agreement Steward
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Agreement are reserved.

This Agreement is governed by the laws of the State of New York and
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По просьбе kidar2 добавляю лицензию EPL. Это копилефтная лицензия, но она не совместима с GNU GPL.

При распространении в форме исходного кода программа должна быть доступна под лицензией EPL.

Автору разрешается распространять программу в форме объектного кода под собственной лицензией, при условии, что: эта лицензия соблюдает условия EPL, явно отказывается от любых гарантий и ответственности от лица всех авторов, указывает, что исходные коды программы доступны у этого автора и объясняет, как их получить.

Применение к своему проекту: копия лицензии должна быть включена во все копии программы

Ms-PL (Microsoft Public License)
Текст лицензии
Microsoft Public License (Ms-PL)

This license governs use of the accompanying software. If you use the
software, you accept this license. If you do not accept the license,
do not use the software.

 1. Definitions

    The terms "reproduce," "reproduction," "derivative works," and
    "distribution" have the same meaning here as under U.S. copyright
    law.

    A "contribution" is the original software, or any additions or
    changes to the software.

    A "contributor" is any person that distributes its contribution
    under this license.

    "Licensed patents" are a contributor's patent claims that read
    directly on its contribution.

 2. Grant of Rights

    (A) Copyright Grant- Subject to the terms of this license,
    including the license conditions and limitations in section 3,
    each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide,
    royalty-free copyright license to reproduce its contribution,
    prepare derivative works of its contribution, and distribute its
    contribution or any derivative works that you create.
   
    (B) Patent Grant- Subject to the terms of this license, including
    the license conditions and limitations in section 3, each
    contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free
    license under its licensed patents to make, have made, use, sell,
    offer for sale, import, and/or otherwise dispose of its
    contribution in the software or derivative works of the
    contribution in the software.
 
 3. Conditions and Limitations
  
    (A) No Trademark License- This license does not grant you rights
    to use any contributors' name, logo, or trademarks.

    (B) If you bring a patent claim against any contributor over
    patents that you claim are infringed by the software, your patent
    license from such contributor to the software ends automatically.

    (C) If you distribute any portion of the software, you must retain
    all copyright, patent, trademark, and attribution notices that are
    present in the software.

    (D) If you distribute any portion of the software in source code
    form, you may do so only under this license by including a
    complete copy of this license with your distribution. If you
    distribute any portion of the software in compiled or object code
    form, you may only do so under a license that complies with this
    license.  

    (E) The software is licensed "as-is." You bear the risk of using
    it. The contributors give no express warranties, guarantees, or
    conditions. You may have additional consumer rights under your
    local laws which this license cannot change. To the extent
    permitted under your local laws, the contributors exclude the
    implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular
    purpose and non-infringement.
Про лицензию напомнил sensboston. Копилефтная лицензия, несовместимая с GPL. По смыслу схожа с EPL, но написана гораздо, гораздо более человеческм языком. Самая короткая из присутствующих в этой статье копилефтных лицензий.

Обладает даже более слабым копилефтом, чем EPL: если вы распространяете исходные коды проекта, содержащие код под Ms-PL, то все исходные коды проекта должны распространяться под Ms-PL. При этом, распространение в форме объектного кода или бинарной форме позволяется под любой лицензией, не нарушающей Ms-PL. Кроме того, вы обязаны сохранять все копирайты, патенты, торговые марки и указания авторства оригинального кода. Да, лицензия регулирует патентные отношения.

Для применения к своему проекту: скопируйте текст лицензии в ваш проект (например, в файл LICENSE) и распространяйте его вместе с ним.

MIT
Текст лицензии
 Copyright (c) 1998, 1999, 2000 Thai Open Source Software Center Ltd
 
 Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
 a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
 "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
 without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
 distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
 permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
 the following conditions:
 
 The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
 in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
 
 THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
 EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
 MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT.
 IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY
 CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT,
 TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE
 SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
Существует миф, что лицензия MIT существует. Дело в том, что MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) использовал много разных лицензий. Тот текст, который сейчас называют лицензией MIT, в оригинале являлся лицензией Expat, а еще ранее составлял большую часть лицензии X11. Эта лицензия — разрешительная, без копилефта. Она разрешает использование и изменение кода практически любым образом, при условии, что текст самой лицензии и указание авторства никуда не исчезнут, даже если вы разобьете изначальный проект на части. Также неоспоримое достоинство этой лицензии — небольшой размер. В качестве недостатка отмечают отсутствие регулирования патентных отношений. Из-за этого вместо нее GNU рекомендуют использовать другую разрешительную лицензию — Apache 2.0, а MIT предлагают использовать лишь для небольших проектов. Тем не менее, из разрешительных лицензий эта, пожалуй, самая известная.

Для ее применения к своему проекту создайте текстовый файл LICENSE и поместите текст лицензии туда, а также не забудьте заменить данные в строке с копирайтом на верные. Многие дополнительно указывают полный текст лицензии в шапке каждого файла исходного кода.

Apache 2.0
Текст лицензии
                                 Apache License
                           Version 2.0, January 2004
                        http://www.apache.org/licenses/

   TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR USE, REPRODUCTION, AND DISTRIBUTION

   1. Definitions.

      "License" shall mean the terms and conditions for use, reproduction,
      and distribution as defined by Sections 1 through 9 of this document.

      "Licensor" shall mean the copyright owner or entity authorized by
      the copyright owner that is granting the License.

      "Legal Entity" shall mean the union of the acting entity and all
      other entities that control, are controlled by, or are under common
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      "control" means (i) the power, direct or indirect, to cause the
      direction or management of such entity, whether by contract or
      otherwise, or (ii) ownership of fifty percent (50%) or more of the
      outstanding shares, or (iii) beneficial ownership of such entity.

      "You" (or "Your") shall mean an individual or Legal Entity
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      "Work" shall mean the work of authorship, whether in Source or
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      "Contribution" shall mean any work of authorship, including
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   2. Grant of Copyright License. Subject to the terms and conditions of
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   9. Accepting Warranty or Additional Liability. While redistributing
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   END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

   APPENDIX: How to apply the Apache License to your work.

      To apply the Apache License to your work, attach the following
      boilerplate notice, with the fields enclosed by brackets "[]"
      replaced with your own identifying information. (Don't include
      the brackets!)  The text should be enclosed in the appropriate
      comment syntax for the file format. We also recommend that a
      file or class name and description of purpose be included on the
      same "printed page" as the copyright notice for easier
      identification within third-party archives.

   Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner]

   Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
   you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
   You may obtain a copy of the License at

       http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

   Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
   distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
   WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
   See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
   limitations under the License.
Наиболее современная и сбалансированная из разрешительных лицензий. Написана человеческим языком, но с оглядкой на современное правоприменение, в частности, упомянутые выше патентные отношения (пункт 3 лицензии). GNU советуют применять именно эту лицензию, когда вам необходима разрешительная лицензия.

Для применения лицензии Apache 2.0 к вашему проекту, нужно добавить в него файл LICENSE, содержащий текст лицензии. Кроме того, в APPENDIX лицензии нам предлагают добавлять в качестве шапки в каждый файл исходного кода следующий текст:

Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner]

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
You may obtain a copy of the License at

    http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.

Но при этом сама лицензия выдвигает следующие требования:
made available under the License, as indicated by a copyright notice that is included in or attached to the work (an example is provided in the Appendix below)
copyright notice — это как раз строка, указывающая правообладателя. А «made available under the License, as indicated» означает, что еще должна быть явно указана лицензия. То есть, допустимо что-то вида:

Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner]
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0

Причем, совсем необязательно в исходном коде — Apache 2.0 позволяет для этого использовать файл NOTICE («or attached to the work»).

И еще о файле NOTICE: если в вашей работе вы используете чужой проект под лицензией Apache 2.0, содержащий свой файл NOTICE, то в этом случае вы обязаны копировать в производную работу содержимое файла NOTICE, в одно из трех мест: либо в аналогичный файл NOTICE, либо в исходные коды или документацию, распространяемую вместе с производной работой, либо в вывод производной работы (например в about-диалог); все согласно пункту 4 (d) лицензии. Заметьте, что, вопреки расхожему мнению, обязательного наличия файла NOTICE лицензия не требует.

При распространении в бинарной форме, вы, кроме того, должны предоставлять копию лицензии вместе с программой.

BSD
Текст лицензии
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
met:

    (1) Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 

    (2) Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
    the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
    distribution.  
    
    (3)The name of the author may not be used to
    endorse or promote products derived from this software without
    specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
(INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING
IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
Это разрешительная лицензия, схожая по смыслу с лицензией MIT. Оригинальная лицензия BSD состояла из 4-х пунктов, но, впоследствии, 3-й пункт, требовавший включать уведомление об авторстве во все рекламные материалы, был исключен. Кроме того, существует и двухпунктовая лицензия BSD, о которой напомнил Athari, в ней удален третий пункт, и эта версия практически совпадает по функциональности с лицензией MIT. GNU советуют вместо лицензии BSD использовать MIT, чтобы исключить путаницу с тем, какая именно версия лицензии BSD используется.

Для ее применения к своему проекту создайте текстовый файл LICENSE и поместите текст лицензии туда. Не забудьте добавить строку с копирайтом. Также, дополнительно можно указать полный текст лицензии в шапке каждого файла исходного кода.

При распространении в бинарной форме лицензия и копирайт должны быть представлены в документации и/или других материалах, распространяемых вместе с бинарником.

WTFPL Version 2
Текст лицензии
            DO WHAT THE FUCK YOU WANT TO PUBLIC LICENSE
                    Version 2, December 2004

 Copyright (C) 2004 Sam Hocevar <sam@hocevar.net>

 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim or modified
 copies of this license document, and changing it is allowed as long
 as the name is changed.

            DO WHAT THE FUCK YOU WANT TO PUBLIC LICENSE
   TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION

  0. You just DO WHAT THE FUCK YOU WANT TO.
Как оказалось, весьма популярная на Хабре лицензия (спасибо Komzpa, Stasik0 и плюсовавшим). Кроме того, она присутствует в списке лицензий GNU, хотя они и постеснялись разместить ее текст на своем сайте.

GNU классифицируют ее как разрешительную некопилефтную лицензию и не рекомендуют ее использовать без каких-либо объяснений. Вместо нее предлагаются MIT или Apache 2.0.

Могу предположить причины:
  • во-первых, лицензия содержит лексику, которая может считаться ненормативной (и я не уверен, что в таком случае лицензию будут принимать в расчет, скажем, в суде),
  • во-вторых, в лицензии никак не прописан отказ от ответственности,
  • в-третьих, у меня есть подозрение, что разрешение пользователю делать с кодом все что угодно тоже может быть оспорено юристами.

Чтобы применить ее к своему проекту — просто добавьте файл с лицензией в проект и не забудьте поменять в лицензии строку с копирайтом. Можно также добавить лицензию в шапку ко всем исходникам проекта.

Beerware
Текст лицензии
/*
* — * «THE BEER-WARE LICENSE» (Revision 42):
* <phk@FreeBSD.ORG> wrote this file. As long as you retain this notice you
* can do whatever you want with this stuff. If we meet some day, and you think
* this stuff is worth it, you can buy me a beer in return. Poul-Henning Kamp
* — */
Еще одна лицензия, набравшая плюсов в комменатриях (спасибо JDima и плюсовавшим). Это тоже разрешительная лицензия, которая пытается разрешить все (ключевое слово «пытается») и содержит необязательное условие поставить автору пива (в других версиях, выпить в честь автора) при встрече, если вам понравился его проект.

Как известно, «чрезмерное употребление пива вредит вашему здоровью». Но беда этой лицензии не в пиве. Обратите внимание на фразу
<phk@FreeBSD.ORG> wrote this file. As long as you retain this notice...
Теперь представьте, что вы изменили код этого файла. Или вы взяли код из этого файла, чтобы добавить в свой. Теперь фраза
<phk@FreeBSD.ORG> wrote this file.
является неверной, но вы обязаны ее сохранить! То есть, лицензия пытается отобрать у вас право указывать авторство произведения. А, например, в России автор имеет неимущественные и неотчуждаемые право авторства и право автора на имя. Получается, что такая лицензия, разрешая изменения и использование кода и запрещая указывать новых авторов, является незаконной (по-хорошему, нужно уточнить у юриста).

Общественное достояние (Public Domain)
Это, конечно же, не лицензия. Но многие рассматривают перевод произведения в общественное достояние как способ сложить с себя имущественные права. Периодически люди пытаются сделать это и в отношении программ. Обычно просто пишут, что проект находится в Public Domain и радуются, что все смогут им пользоваться. Но на самом деле это не так! В разных странах общественное достояние разное. Причем, в большинстве из них закон явно не предусматривает механизмов для перевода произведения в общественное достояние по желанию автора! Например, в России переход в общественное достояние определен только по истечению срока действия защиты авторского права. В США, насколько мне известно, досрочной процедуры тоже не предусмотрено. Кроме того, могут быть сложности и с использованием произведений, находящихся в общественном достоянии. Скажем, в Уругвае, для того, чтобы использовать произведение из общественного достояния, вам понадобится уплатить пошлину государству и получить разрешение специальной комиссии, которая удостоверится, что вы не будете использовать данное произведение как-то непотребно (правда, я не знаю, работает ли все это в отношении программ). Вследствие подобных нюансов, появились лицензии подобные следующей.

CC0 (Creative Commons CC0)
Текст лицензии
     CREATIVE COMMONS CORPORATION IS NOT A LAW FIRM AND DOES NOT
     PROVIDE LEGAL SERVICES. DISTRIBUTION OF THIS DOCUMENT DOES NOT
     CREATE AN ATTORNEY-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP. CREATIVE COMMONS PROVIDES
     THIS INFORMATION ON AN "AS-IS" BASIS. CREATIVE COMMONS MAKES NO
     WARRANTIES REGARDING THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR THE INFORMATION
     OR WORKS PROVIDED HEREUNDER, AND DISCLAIMS LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES
     RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR THE INFORMATION OR
     WORKS PROVIDED HEREUNDER.

Statement of Purpose

The laws of most jurisdictions throughout the world automatically
confer exclusive Copyright and Related Rights (defined below) upon the
creator and subsequent owner(s) (each and all, an "owner") of an
original work of authorship and/or a database (each, a "Work").

Certain owners wish to permanently relinquish those rights to a Work
for the purpose of contributing to a commons of creative, cultural and
scientific works ("Commons") that the public can reliably and without
fear of later claims of infringement build upon, modify, incorporate
in other works, reuse and redistribute as freely as possible in any
form whatsoever and for any purposes, including without limitation
commercial purposes. These owners may contribute to the Commons to
promote the ideal of a free culture and the further production of
creative, cultural and scientific works, or to gain reputation or
greater distribution for their Work in part through the use and
efforts of others.

For these and/or other purposes and motivations, and without any
expectation of additional consideration or compensation, the person
associating CC0 with a Work (the "Affirmer"), to the extent that he or
she is an owner of Copyright and Related Rights in the Work,
voluntarily elects to apply CC0 to the Work and publicly distribute
the Work under its terms, with knowledge of his or her Copyright and
Related Rights in the Work and the meaning and intended legal effect
of CC0 on those rights.

1. Copyright and Related Rights. A Work made available under CC0 may
be protected by copyright and related or neighboring rights
("Copyright and Related Rights"). Copyright and Related Rights
include, but are not limited to, the following:

    the right to reproduce, adapt, distribute, perform, display,
    communicate, and translate a Work; moral rights retained by the
    original author(s) and/or performer(s); publicity and privacy
    rights pertaining to a person's image or likeness depicted in a
    Work; rights protecting against unfair competition in regards to a
    Work, subject to the limitations in paragraph 4(a), below; rights
    protecting the extraction, dissemination, use and reuse of data in
    a Work; database rights (such as those arising under Directive
    96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March
    1996 on the legal protection of databases, and under any national
    implementation thereof, including any amended or successor version
    of such directive); and other similar, equivalent or corresponding
    rights throughout the world based on applicable law or treaty, and
    any national implementations thereof.

2. Waiver. To the greatest extent permitted by, but not in
contravention of, applicable law, Affirmer hereby overtly, fully,
permanently, irrevocably and unconditionally waives, abandons, and
surrenders all of Affirmer's Copyright and Related Rights and
associated claims and causes of action, whether now known or unknown
(including existing as well as future claims and causes of action), in
the Work (i) in all territories worldwide, (ii) for the maximum
duration provided by applicable law or treaty (including future time
extensions), (iii) in any current or future medium and for any number
of copies, and (iv) for any purpose whatsoever, including without
limitation commercial, advertising or promotional purposes (the
"Waiver"). Affirmer makes the Waiver for the benefit of each member of
the public at large and to the detriment of Affirmer's heirs and
successors, fully intending that such Waiver shall not be subject to
revocation, rescission, cancellation, termination, or any other legal
or equitable action to disrupt the quiet enjoyment of the Work by the
public as contemplated by Affirmer's express Statement of Purpose.

3. Public License Fallback. Should any part of the Waiver for any
reason be judged legally invalid or ineffective under applicable law,
then the Waiver shall be preserved to the maximum extent permitted
taking into account Affirmer's express Statement of Purpose. In
addition, to the extent the Waiver is so judged Affirmer hereby grants
to each affected person a royalty-free, non transferable, non
sublicensable, non exclusive, irrevocable and unconditional license to
exercise Affirmer's Copyright and Related Rights in the Work (i) in
all territories worldwide, (ii) for the maximum duration provided by
applicable law or treaty (including future time extensions), (iii) in
any current or future medium and for any number of copies, and (iv)
for any purpose whatsoever, including without limitation commercial,
advertising or promotional purposes (the "License"). The License shall
be deemed effective as of the date CC0 was applied by Affirmer to the
Work. Should any part of the License for any reason be judged legally
invalid or ineffective under applicable law, such partial invalidity
or ineffectiveness shall not invalidate the remainder of the License,
and in such case Affirmer hereby affirms that he or she will not (i)
exercise any of his or her remaining Copyright and Related Rights in
the Work or (ii) assert any associated claims and causes of action
with respect to the Work, in either case contrary to Affirmer's
express Statement of Purpose.

4. Limitations and Disclaimers.

    No trademark or patent rights held by Affirmer are waived,
    abandoned, surrendered, licensed or otherwise affected by this
    document.  Affirmer offers the Work as-is and makes no
    representations or warranties of any kind concerning the Work,
    express, implied, statutory or otherwise, including without
    limitation warranties of title, merchantability, fitness for a
    particular purpose, non infringement, or the absence of latent or
    other defects, accuracy, or the present or absence of errors,
    whether or not discoverable, all to the greatest extent
    permissible under applicable law.  Affirmer disclaims
    responsibility for clearing rights of other persons that may apply
    to the Work or any use thereof, including without limitation any
    person's Copyright and Related Rights in the Work. Further,
    Affirmer disclaims responsibility for obtaining any necessary
    consents, permissions or other rights required for any use of the
    Work.  Affirmer understands and acknowledges that Creative Commons
    is not a party to this document and has no duty or obligation with
    respect to this CC0 or use of the Work.
Creative Commons CC0 — лицензия, которая пытается перевести проект в общественное достояние в максимальной форме, разрешенной законом. А если закон не позволяет это совершить, автоматически применяет положения разрешительной лицензии. GNU рекомендует применять CC0 в том случае, если вы хотите перевести вашу работу в общественное достояние.

Про применение CC0 к проекту можно прочитать в этой статье.

Unlicense
Текст лицензии
This is free and unencumbered software released into the public domain.

Anyone is free to copy, modify, publish, use, compile, sell, or
distribute this software, either in source code form or as a compiled
binary, for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, and by any
means.

In jurisdictions that recognize copyright laws, the author or authors
of this software dedicate any and all copyright interest in the
software to the public domain. We make this dedication for the benefit
of the public at large and to the detriment of our heirs and
successors. We intend this dedication to be an overt act of
relinquishment in perpetuity of all present and future rights to this
software under copyright law.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT.
IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR
OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE,
ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR
OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

For more information, please refer to <http://unlicense.org/>
Про лицензию напомнил Athari. Эта лицензия появилась путем копипасты текста о передаче в общественное достояние и отказа от прав (waiver) проекта SQLite и отказа от гарантий из лицензии MIT. Аналогично лицензии CC0, Unlicense пытается перевести работу в общественное достояние и послужить в виде лицензионного договора на случай, если этого не произошло. Однако, эта лицензия менее проработана, чем CC0, из-за чего может являться нелегальной. Вот в этом вопросе на stackexchange подробнее. Вкратце, там указано, что лицензия явно нелегальна, например, в Германии, так как там, похоже, нет понятия общественного достояния. А Unlicense, в отличие от CC0, не отказывается от перевода в общественное достояние для случая, когда это противоречит закону. Кроме того лицензия как минимум нелогична (или даже противоречива), так как передача в общественное достояние, заявленная в первой строке, в случае успеха делает невалидными параграфы, следующие за ней.

Для применения Unlicense нужно добавить файл с текстом лицензии к вашему проекту. Авторы лицензии рекомендуют назвать файл UNLICENSE.

Copyright в исходниках


Наверное, вы заметили, что многие лицензии предлагают размещать определенный текст в виде комментария в шапке файла? Если это является обязательным требованием, то тогда ему нужно следовать. Но насколько необходим подобный текст, если явного требования лицензия не предъявляет?

Хорошие новости: в таком случае лицензию и даже копирайт совершенно не обязательно указывать в шапке файла. Ваша работа и так ваша, для подтверждения этого указывать копирайт нет необходимости. Подтверждать авторство или обладание правами вам все равно придется другими способами, а текст лицензии может находиться в отдельном файле.

Но все же такой заголовок лучше иметь. Основные причины следующие:
  • Он четко показывает, что права на код кому-то принадлежат. Отмазки вида «я не знал, там не написано, не смог найти, не заметил» уже не прокатят. Иначе говоря, наличие такого заголовка предотвращает случайное неправомерное использование кода, а также может увеличить ответственность за намеренное.
  • Дает возможность идентифицировать владельца прав на код, чтобы связаться с ним в том числе и по вопросам правомерности использования этого кода.

Между прочим, это имеет смысл не только для open-source проекта. Указание владельца прав и авторства может помочь и проприетарному коду в том случае, если он каким-либо образом утечет в сеть.

Если вы решили, что уведомление о правах на файл исходного кода вам необходимо, то вот что оно должно содержать в идеале:
  • Copyright — так как в некоторых странах одного символа копирайта недостаточно для юридической значимости уведомления.
  • © — символ копирайта, в большинстве стран он необходим и достаточен для придания юридической значимости уведомлению. Простой буквы c в скобках ( c ) для этого может быть недостаточно. Используйте уже Unicode!
  • 2007, 2009, 2010 – 2012 — «годы жизни» кода, первое число — год, когда продукт был впервые опубликован, далее — годы, когда код обновлялся. Если годы, когда код в файле правился, идут не подряд, то их нужно указывать через запятую.
  • John Doe — имя владельца авторских прав. Не автора, это могут быть разные лица! Может быть именем человека, названием компании, или именами нескольких человек. Правда, в последнем случае лучше сделать отдельную строчку на каждого человека.
  • All rights reserved — «все права защищены», означает, что указанные лица обладают всеми правами на код. Дополнительное усиление уведомления копирайта, в случае обладания исключительными правами.
  • Если возможно, то дать ссылку на лицензионный договор или указание, где его искать.
  • Указать контактные данные.

Обратите внимание, что имя автора в уведомление не входит. Автора/авторов можно указать отдельно, например, на следующей строке, в свободной форме (например Author: Jane Doe).

Ну и, на всякий случай, примеры
// Copyright © 2022 John Doe. All rights reserved.

// Copyright © 2022-2096 Acme Corporation. All rights reserved.
// Author: John Doe

// Copyright © 2022 John Doe
// Copyright © 2023-2028 Jane Doe
// Copyright © 2028-2096 Acme Corporation. Contacts: <acme@example.com>
// License: http://opensource.org/licenses/MIT

Заключение


Разместить ваш проект в интернете и написать «пользуйтесь все!» еще недостаточно для того, чтобы им действительно начали пользоваться. И речь не о рекламе или полезности конкретного проекта. Часто необходимо четкое понимание, как можно и как нельзя использовать проект, особенно, если цели использования — коммерческие. В том числе, слова «пользуйтесь все» вряд ли удастся представить договором с правообладателем в случае каких-либо проблем.

При выборе лицензии задумайтесь, в первую очередь, о том, что лицензию вы пишете в большей степени не для себя, а для тех, кто вашим кодом будет пользоваться. Она регулирует ваши отношения с ними. Кто будет использовать ваш код? Как они будут его использовать? Какая из лицензий будет им удобнее? Какие проблемы из-за лицензии могут возникнуть у них? А у вас? Ответив на подобные вопросы, можно подобрать наилучшую лицензию.

В свою очередь, если вы используете чужой проект в своих целях, то нужно понять ограничения, накладываемые на вас его лицензией. Подходят ли они вам, сможете ли вы выполнить эти требования?

Лицензия, даже свободная, является договором между правообладателем и пользователем. Старайтесь рассматривать это именно так.

Материалы


  1. Право интеллектуальной собственности. Шпаргалка, Коллектив авторов
  2. Служебное произведение, Википедия
  3. Moral rights, Wikipedia
  4. Лицензия на программное обеспечение, Википедия
  5. Определение свободного программного обеспечения, Википедия
  6. Критерии Debian по определению свободного программного обеспечения, Википедия
  7. Свободная лицензия, Википедия
  8. Проприетарное программное обеспечение, Википедия
  9. Ричард Столлман, Википедия
  10. Брюс Перенс, Википедия
  11. Открытое программное обеспечение, Википедия
  12. Разрешительная лицензия свободного ПО, Википедия
  13. Various licenses and comments about them/Различные лицензии и комментарии к ним, GNU
  14. Копилефт, Википедия
  15. Understanding Open Source and Free Software Licensing, Andrew M. St. Laurent
  16. GNU Lesser General Public License, Википедия
  17. Почему вам не следует применять Меньшую GPL для своей следующей библиотеки, GNU
  18. Frequently Asked Questions about the GNU Licenses, GNU
  19. Как применять лицензии GNU со своими программами, GNU
  20. Лицензия BSD, Википедия
  21. Общественное достояние, Википедия
  22. Ley 9.739, Propiedad literaria y artistica, leyes de la República Oriental del Uruguay
  23. Uruguay: Dominio Público pero Pagante, Fundación Karisma con Open Business Latinamerica and the Caribbean
  24. Managing copyright information within a free software project, Software Freedom Law Center
  25. Using copyright notices, The UK Copyright Service
  26. Get rid of source code templates, Ville Laurikari
  27. MPL 2.0 FAQ, Mozilla Foundation
  28. «The Beerware License» Considered Harmful, RM
  29. How does MS-PL license work? Stackoverflow
  30. Unlicense Yourself: Set Your Code Free
  31. What is wrong with the Unlicense?

Update
Добавил GNU GPL Version 2, спасибо, wholeman
Добавил MPL Version 2.0, спасибо, lorus
Поправлено описание GNU GPL, спасибо, coh
Поправлено описание Apache 2.0, благодаря eyeofhell
Добавил WTFPL Version 2, спасибо Komzpa, Stasik0 и плюсовавшим
Добавил Beerware license, спасибо JDima и плюсовавшим
Добавил GNU AGPL, спасибо coh, lorus
Добавил EPL Version 1.0, спасибо, kidar2
Добавил Ms-PL и ссылку на еще один список лицензий, спасибо, sensboston
Добавил в описание GPLv2 и GPLv3 ссылку на «Практическое руководство по соответствию GPL», спасибо, Indexator
Добавил ссылку на сайт LicenseIT, спасибо, sensboston
Добавил в описание GPLv3 еще одну ссылку, еше раз спасибо, Indexator
Добавил описание Unlicense и внес правки в описания LGPL, MPL, MIT, BSD, спасибо, Athari
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Комментарии (112)

  • +4
    Круто! Очень подробно и доходчиво, спасибо.
    • +2
      Не совсем. GPL 2 не упомянута, однако, многие пользуются этой версией. Из наиболее известных проектов — ядро Linux, хотя RMS лично уговаривал Линуса перейти на третью GPL. GPLv3 заметно строже и может создать некоторые проблемы автору. Например, одно из требований состоит в том, что должна быть предоставлена инструкция по установке изменённого приложения на устройство. Для приложений под iOS или WindowsPhone, где нет штатной возможности установить пакет не из магазина, выполнить такое требование проблематично.
      • 0
        С вашей помощью статья станет более полной :)
      • 0
        Добавил описание GPLv2 в статью, спасибою
  • +3
    Для проекта open source стоит ещё рассмотреть MPL 2.0. Своеобразная лицензия, что-то среднее между LGPL и BSD. От LGPL отличается отсутствием заморочек со статическим связыванием. Это может оказаться важным для программ на ЯП, в которых динамическое связывание не предусмотрено.
    • +1
      Спасибо, добавил в статью. Не сталкивался раньше с этой лицензией.
  • 0
    А что будет человеку, который использовал, к примеру, программу с лицензией GPLv3, но не выложил свои исходники? Он же может сказать, что сейчас у него нет времени, когда-нибудь потом выложу и будет кормить завтраками.
    • 0
      В теории он может и не выкладывать. Он должен предоставить по первому требованию любому потребовавшему, а если не предоставит, то это — нарушение условий лицензии, которое может повлечь за собой судебный иск, например.
    • 0
      Если использует программу для себя, не распространяя, то может и не выкладывать исходники, насколько я понимаю… А если распространяет не публикуя код, то вполне могут (тот же FSF) как минимум напихать палок в колеса, например, поспособствовать удалению из всех маркетов…
    • 0
      Прошу прощения. Я был неточен в статье, но coh и x0wl меня поправили: он не обязан выкладывать исходники, он обязан предоставить их конечным пользователям.Вот здесь подробнее: geektimes.ru/post/45878/
      Если он не предоставит исходники, то тогда все зависит от пользователя: тот может обидиться, а может и в суд.
      • 0
        Но где границы этой обиды и подачи в суд? Допустим, я скажу, что сейчас у меня сломался компьютер, умер хомяк, уезжаю в командировку в Антарктиду и не могу сейчас предоставить исходники. Насколько я понимаю, это нигде не прописано и имеется множество причин откладывать выполнение требования.
        • +1
          Границы там, где сочтет нужным обиженный.
        • +1
          Как я написал в статье, лицензия — это договор. Вы, как разработчик, по нему обязуетесь выполнить одни условия, пользователь — другие. Если кто-то не выполняет условия договора — то это повод второму для обращения в инстанции. А границы в этом случае установит судья. Ну, или присяжные.
  • +5
    Лучшая лицензия: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beerware
    /*
    * — * «THE BEER-WARE LICENSE» (Revision 42):
    * <phk@FreeBSD.ORG> wrote this file. As long as you retain this notice you
    * can do whatever you want with this stuff. If we meet some day, and you think
    * this stuff is worth it, you can buy me a beer in return. Poul-Henning Kamp
    * — */
    • 0
      Добавил Beerware, с ней все не радужно. Но, спасибо.
  • +8
    Совершенно забыта самая правильная лицензия для тех, кто не знает, под какой лицензией выложить кусок кода — WTFPL:

    ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/WTFPL
    • +2
      Добавил WTFPL в статью, спасибо.
    • +2
      Кстати, регулярно пользуюсь. Очень удобно для всяких мелочей, которые лень лицензировать по-человечески.
    • +2
      У неё есть один существенный недостаток: она никак не ограничивает ответственность автора. Всякие отказы от гарантий и тому подобные вещи пишут не просто так, а для того, чтобы обезопасить себя от претензий пользователей, у которых что-то пошло не так.
    • 0
      Это хлам с пиаром автора. Строчка по сути, пять строчек про копирайт на текст лицензии, версии, даты и прочий мусор. Тьфу. Лучше уж так:

      DO WHAT THE FUCK YOU WANT TO PUBLIC LICENSE*

      TERMS AND CONDITIONS
      1. You just DO WHAT THE FUCK YOU WANT TO.


      Ну а если серьёзно, то реальная минимальная лицензия с аналогичным результатом («почти PD») — Unlicense.
  • 0
    За поиском определения я отправлю желающих на Википедию, для чего дам ссылки сразу на несколько статей:



    Лично для меня наиболее интересно было бы узнать, как это всё соответствует 4 части ГК РФ. Если никак, то какой смысл в этих рассуждениях? Бить-то будут по мне, а не по Столмену.
    • 0
      Я боюсь, что Вам мало кто сможет ответить. Лучше всего обратиться к юристу, причем, серьезно занимающемуся лицензиями на ПО и авторскими правами. И не с заявленями Столлмана, а с какой-либо конкретно интересующей лицензией, дабы разобраться о ее соответствии законам и правоприменению в РФ. И, честно говоря, я все равно не уверен, что юрист сможет Вам все разложить по полочкам, так как наши законы (равно как и их отсутствие по конкретной теме) порой могут трактоваться весьма интересными способами.
    • 0
      Возможно, Вам будет полезна вот эта ссылка: licenseit.ru/wiki/index.php, упомянутая sensboston ниже в комментариях.
  • +2
    Над реальными проектами трудятся команды разработчиков. Не совсем понятно, как применять лицензию в этом случае. Допустим, один разработчик создал файл, и в шапке указал копирайт на своё имя. Если другие разработчики вносят изменения в этот файл, должны ли они себя так же добавлять в шапку? Ведь по сути, изменения — это тоже продукт интеллектуальной работы.
    • 0
      Авторы изменений обычно отмечаются в системе контроля версий или в патчах…
      • 0
        Это понятно, а лицензию-то как применять к changeset/revisions?
    • +2
      Владелец прав на распространение (копирайт) != автор. Если над проектом работает команда, то создаётся компания/команда/группа и копирайт оформляется на неё. А авторы указываются отдельно.
    • +2
      Будет несколько строчек с копирайтом, как в примере.
      // Copyright © 2022 John Doe
      // Copyright © 2023-2028 Jane Doe
      // Copyright © 2028-2096 Acme Corporation. 
      
      То есть, да, должны себя добавить в шапку.
      Если же все они работники компании, то, как вам правильно ответили, правообладателем, скорее всего, является компания, и будет указана она.
  • 0
    Небольшая неточность.
    если вы решите использовать библиотеку под GPLv3 в вашем проекте, вам придется выложить исходники вашего проекта под GPL

    На сколько я помню, вы не обязаны предоставлять исходники программы всем желающим. Если вы взяли GPLv3 код и сделали приложение (для себя) и не распространяете его, вы не обязаны предоставлять исходный код всем кому попало. Таким образом, вы обязаны предоставить исходники только своим конечным получателям. Вы можете не распространять программу бесплатно, брать некую сумму, но в таком случае вы обязаны исходный код под GPLv3 и не можете как-то ограничить получателя. Проще говоря, ваш клиент может начать раздавать приложение бесплатно модифицировать, создавать производные продукты.

    Мне кажется это очень важная деталь про которую забывают, поправьте меня если я ошибаюсь.
    • 0
      • 0
        Спасибо, поправил описание в статье.
    • 0
      А как это будет относиться к веб-приложению?
      Например я выпускаю веб-сервис для поиска пропавших котят на платной основе. Для какой-то функциональности на серверной стороне я использую библиотеку под GPLv3. Я должен каким-то образом предоставлять код пользователю?
      • +4
        А никак. Если предоставить возможность пользоваться сервисом, не распространяя его как приложение (например, реализовав его в виде веб-приложения), то можно не предоставлять исходный код, не нарушая при этом GPL. Чтобы закрыть эту лазейку и придумали AGPL — «усиленную» версию GPL, покрывающую и этот случай.
      • 0
        Фирма исполняет на сайте модифицированную версию программы под GPL. Сказано ли в GPL, что они должны выпустить свои модифицированные исходные тексты? (#UnreleasedMods)

        GPL разрешает всем делать модифицированные версии и применять из безо всякой передачи другим. То, что делает эта фирма — особый случай таких действий. Следовательно, фирма не обязана выпускать модифицированные исходные тексты.

        Важно, чтобы у людей была свобода вносить изменения для личного пользования безо всякой публикации этих изменений. Однако размещение программы на сервере, чтобы публика с ней общалась, едва ли является “личным” использованием, так что было бы законным потребовать выпуска исходного текста в этом особом случае. Разработчики, заинтересованные в этом, могут воспользоваться GNU Affero GPL для программ, составляемых для применения на сетевых серверах.

        www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html#UnreleasedMods
  • –2
    Спасибо, полезно. Игру лицензировал под GPLv3 + CC-by для ресурсов. Подумываю об откате до GPLv2…
  • 0
    del
  • +1
    В лицензии Apache 2.0 написано, что надо ее упоминать во всех файлах. Но это написано после текста лицензии. В самом же тексте лицензии написано «as indicated by a copyright notice that is included in or attached to the work (an example is provided in the Appendix below)». И из написанного в лицензии означает что достаточно «приаттачить» файл LICENSE к проекту.

    Вопрос — под какой лицензией будет проект, выложенный на github, если в корне этого проекта находится файл с текстом лицензии Apache 2.0, но ни в одном исходном файле ничего не упоминается?
    • +1
      Проект будет под лицензией Apache 2.0. Но если кто-то получит/увидит файл исходного кода отдельно от проекта, ему будет проблематично узнать, под какой лицензией он распространяется и кто обладает правами на него.
      • +1
        Но ведь шансы на это примерно такие же, как «кто-то получит файл исходного кода отдельно от проекта, от которого отрезали шапку»? Или я что-то неправильно понимаю?
        • 0
          Отрезать — это уже чьи-то специальные действия. А просто при отсутствии — это может произойти случайно. Вы нашли файл в поисковике и не посмотрели, к какому проекту он относится. Ваш коллега переслал Вам его по почте без должных комментариев. То есть, увеличивается шанс на ошибку. Другое дело, что шанс на то, что такая ошибка приведет к юридическим последствиям, весьма невелик.

          Кстати, если говорить о процитированной Вами фразе: «made available under the License, as indicated by a copyright notice that is included in or attached to the work (an example is provided in the Appendix below)», то copyright notice — это не сама лицензия. Это как раз строка, указывающая правообладателя. А «made available under the License, as indicated» означает, что еще должна быть явно указана лицензия. То есть, что-то вида:
          Copyright 2013 John Doe
          Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0
          должно быть в проекте. Не обязательно в исходном коде, Apache 2.0 позволяет для этого использовать файл NOTICE. Думаю, немного поправлю в статье пункт про Apache.
  • +1
    WTFPL ещё есть для совсем простых случаев
  • 0
    А подскажите по портированию библиотек:
    Я взял класс из библиотеки под лицензией MIT, портировал на другой язык для библиотеки под BSD 3clause. Что я должен написать и где, чтобы соблюсти авторские права исходной библиотеки.

    Также интересует та же ситуация, но только не при портировании на другой язык, а небольшом изменении кода для другой библиотеки
    • 0
      1. Думаю, примерно так: скопировать файл LICENSE с лицензией MIT в новую библиотеку (или даже добавить прямо в существующий файл с BSD, указав, на какой файл она распространяется). К содержащемуся в лицензии копирайту/копирайтам добавить свой (Copyright 2014 quantum). Если копирайт был еще и в исходном файле с классом, то стоит его перенести и в новый файл. И добавить Ваш собственный.

      2. Аналогично: указываете себя в качестве одного из авторов в лицензии. Если копирайты есть в файлах, то добавляетесь только в те файлы, где что-то меняли. Если изменяете лицензию, тоже придется держать в проекте обе лицензии.

      Не забудьте, что у проектов могут иметься правила, куда нужно скопировать лицензию, и где указывать копирайт.
    • 0
      С MIT есть один момент, который не совсем понятен (мне во всяком случае; IANAL): т.к. она явно разрешает sublicense, то требование "[t]he above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software" может быть нарушено уже на втором сублицензиате. Т.е. я беру код MIT, перелицензирую его под условной DCL (Devoid Copyright License), включаю оригинальное авторство, как того требует MIT, но последующие чуваки могут, по идее, делать с копирайтом что хотят.

      Получается, что MIT — этакая 0-clause BSD, требущая указывать copyright notice лишь до первого заимствования (0-clause потому, что лишь в самой лицензии; в отличие от BSD, которая явно упоминает сорцы и бинарники, MIT определяет Software довольно общо: «software and associated documentation files»).
  • 0
    А может ли кто-либо подсказать нарушаются ли права MS в след.случае:

    Есть хидер поставляемый Microsoft при установке MS Visual Studio:
    c:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SDKs\Windows\v7.0A\Include\WinNT.h

    В этом хидере есть заголовки описывающие формат PE32\PE32+, к примеру IMAGE_NT_HEADERS64, IMAGE_OPTIONAL_HEADER64 и др. Есть очень много OpenSource проектов, которые работают с PE-файлами и которые у себя в коде используют один в один названия из winnt.h

    Нарушают ли эти Open-Source проекты права MS?
    • +2
      Почему все говорят хидер, а не хедер? -___-'
      • +1
        Полагаю, потому, что в большинстве случаев «ea» читается как [i:]. И, несмотря на то, что ни разу не слышал произношения «head» как «хид», с header'ом извечная проблема у многих.
      • +1
        Спасибо за поправку. Но что с моим вопросом? ;)
        • 0
          Рискну предположить, что в случае серьезных разбирательств по подобному вопросу им бы занималась экспертная комиссия, состоящая из программистов и юристов (занимающихся плагиатом и авторским правом). Поэтому на Хабре Вам вряд ли ответят что-то конкретное. Но, Вы можете либо подать в суд, запастись деньгами и попкорном, и посмотреть, чем все закончится, либо найти знакомого профильного юриста и провести менее точное моделирование за бутылочкой горячительного.

          Или стоит поискать в сети результаты по похожим случаям. Одну ссылку Вам уже предложили.
    • 0
      Можно рассудить по аналогии с en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SCO_v._IBM
      • 0
        Спасибо за ссылку. Ваш ответ еще больше подталкивает к мысли: «Береженого бог бережет». Другими словами использование тех же имен для проектов особого преимущества не несет, но при этом добавляет возможные проблемы. Небольшим преимуществом может быть разве что привычные названия для программистов знающих формат и читавших документ. Еще раз Спасибо!
  • 0
    Ещё бы EPL описать.
    • 0
      Добавил описание в статью, спасибо.
  • 0
    А что на счет смены лицензии?
    Например в процессе разработки я решил сменить лицензию с GPL на какую нибудь копилефтную или проприетарную. Какие подводные камни? Ведь получается что последующая версия программы основывается на исходных кодах, которые уже были выложены под GPL лицензией?
  • 0
    А что насчет ресурсов? Распространяются ли копилефтные лицензии на ресурсы, обязан ли автор вместе с исходниками распространять ресурсы проекта и т.д.? Хотелось бы поподробнее на эту тему.
    • 0
      К сожалению, не могу ответить. Сам бы с удовольствием послушал того, кто в этом разобрался. Вроде бы, GPL распространяется только на код, а ресурсы идут под своими лицензиями. А, например, CC0 применяется ко всему проекту. А про другие лицензии и этого не могу сказать. Да и эти сведения требуют проверки.
    • 0
      Любой кусок может лицензироваться отдельно, если это не запрещено лицензией. Например:
      Doom 3 = GPL (код открыт) / DSL (код открыт для некоммерческого использования) + EULA (использование ресурсов в игре продаётся);
      Descent = NC (код открыт для некоммерческого использования) + EULA (использование ресурсов в игре продаётся);
      WoW = EULA (код закрыт) + NC (ресурсы можно использовать для некоммерческого Machinima).
      • 0
        Это-то понятно, что автор/правообладатель может разделить проект на несколько частей и открыть отдельно только код без ресурсов, или даже использовать множественную лицензию для кода, чтобы одновременно выложить код в открытый доступ и отдельно линковать с ресурсами под проприетарной лицензией для продажи, без обязательств раскрытия изменений или других проприетарных частей, как например Qt, думаю с думом так же (хаха, каламбур).

        Больше интересует случай, когда я в свой проект добавляю GPL-код, который обязывает раскрывать мой код, то обязывает ли он раскрывать мои ресурсы, распространяется он на них или действует только на код?
      • +1
        А меня интересует несколько иное. Предположим, у меня есть проект, который содержит код, и, скажем, изображения. Я создаю в проекте файл LICENSE и копирую туда текст лицензии (интересует, в общем-то, для всего списка лицензий из статьи), нигде не уточняя, к чему именно в проекте применяется лицензия. Будет ли в таком случае лицензия распространяться и на изображения? И как в этом случае понимать фразу про «исходные коды», если она упомянута в лицензии? Должен ли я буду с исходным кодом распространять исходники изображений (проекты Gimp или Photoshop)?
        • 0
          GPL — это лицензия для кода. Для ресурсов, документации лучше выбрать более подходящую лицензию. С кодом под GPL хорошо пойдут CC-BY-SA для ресурсов, GFDL для документации. У них та же идея, что и у GPL, но они подходят для графики и текстов.

          В комплекте с пермиссивными лицензиями подойдёт CC-BY для контента. Если лицензия MIT, которая не говорит про сорцы, то можно всё под ней, наверное.

          Отказ от ответственности: никогда не лицензировал контент, вышеописанное — теория, основанная на прочитанном мной.
          • 0
            Получается непонятка: допустим, проект под GPL с двоичными ресурсами (картинки в SVG вполне можно считать кодом). Если GPL не распространяется на эти ресурсы, а отдельной лицензии нет, выходит, что их вообще нельзя использовать.
            • 0
              Распространяется.
          • 0
            Спасибо за ответ. У меня примерно схожие мысли насчет MIT. К сожалению, хотелось бы разобраться досконально.
  • 0
    1. GPL требует публиковать исходники именно под GPL, или в любом виде?
    2. Если именно под GPL — что, если использовать код под GPL, а свой проект выпустить одновременно под GPL и, скажем, под MIT?
    • +1
      1. Да, GPL — т.н. «вирусная лицензия»
      2. Perl, например
      • 0
        То есть, таким способом возможно «вывести» код из GPL?
        Использование его в проекте, лицензированном одновременно под GPL и под MIT, сделает возможным взять уже из этого проекта код, но под MIT, и, соответственно, освободиться от требования использовать GPL?
        • +2
          То есть, таким способом возможно «вывести» код из GPL?
          Нет, конечно. Ваш код будут под обеими лицензиями, а тот который был под GPL под ним и останется, без согласия всех авторов перелицензирование не выполняется независимо от Вашего желания. Будет смесь лицензий и сложно понять, что можно копировать, а что нет (если менять оригинальные файлы).
          • 0
            Стало понятнее, спасибо.
  • НЛО прилетело и опубликовало эту надпись здесь
    • 0
      Спасибо, добавил. Удивительно, но оказалась очень человеко-читаемая лицензия, особенно на контрасте с жуткой EPL.
      • НЛО прилетело и опубликовало эту надпись здесь
        • 0
          Не спорю, но я с ней не сталкивался, поэтому не могу рассказать о тонкостях ее применения. А Beerware и WTFPL я добавил после появления в комментариях, в основном, чтобы указать на недостатки. Может быть, кто-нибудь в итоге передумает их использовать.
  • НЛО прилетело и опубликовало эту надпись здесь
    • 0
      Добавил линк в статью.
      • НЛО прилетело и опубликовало эту надпись здесь
        • 0
          Огромное спасибо за эту ссылку. Жаль не могу плюсовать в карму
        • 0
          Мне тоже непонятно, как я мог не знать про этот сайт. Добавил эту ссылку в начало статьи, спасибо.
  • +1
    Вот тут еще добрый человек с ЛОРа разместил Практическое руководство по соответствию GPL:
    tim4dev.com/2014/11/compliance-gpl-1/
    tim4dev.com/2014/11/compliance-gpl-2/
    tim4dev.com/2014/11/compliance-gpl-3/
    • 0
      Спасибо, добавил ссылку в статью.
      • 0
        Еще есть вот это.
        • 0
          Добавил в описание GPLv3, спасибо.
  • 0
    А у меня есть вопрос по авторскому праву. Как известно, у автора есть неимущественное право на защиту произведения, включая его название, от всякого искажения или иного посягательства, способного нанести ущерб чести и достоинству автора.
    Как известно, программный код приравнивается к художественным произведениям (во всяком случае у нас, в Беларуси), а неимущественные права есть только у автора и не могут передаваться.

    Вопрос такой: может ли разработчик, который написал программу/часть программы запретить изменять свой код? (под разным предлогом)
  • 0
    del
  • 0
    Тема не раскрыта. Весьма поверхностно. Как выбирать — непонятно.

    LGPL — это надстройка над GPL, и требует ее наличия в проекте.

    Чего-чего требует?

    Динамическая компоновка не требует открывать исходные коды. Со статической компоновкой сложнее, при ее использовании необходимо предоставлять вашу программу в объектной форме (исходные коды не обязательны), для того чтобы пользователь мог сам изменить библиотеку и перелинковать бинарник.

    В лицензии это не оговорено. Различия между динамической и статической линковкой — это фантазии FSF, которые не были обоснованы в суде. Есть альтернативные мнения, в том числе мнение Линуса.

    GNU рекомендует применять эту лицензию только в том случае, если применение вместо нее обычной GPL приведет к тому, что библиотеку перестанут использовать, заменив на аналогичную.

    Опять-таки, это левая рекомендация. В современном мире побеждают пермиссивные лицензии, которые ещё значительнее увеличивают популярность библиотеки.

    Мы рекомендуем разработчикам подумать о применении GNU AGPL для любых программ, которые обычно выполняются в сети.

    Читать: «Если вас замучала паранойя при разработке веб-программ, ограда — здесь». AGPL практически не существует в окружающем мире, поэтому рекомендовать её хоть для чего-то — занятие странное. И уж тем более для веб-программ, где традиция основательно смещена в сторону пермиссивных лицензий.

    Но если вы все же меняете код, то обязаны предоставить доступ к измененному вами коду под все той же MPL 2.0.

    Лицензией MPL заражаются файлы, а не проекты, в отличие от (L)GPL. Если изменить файл, он должен остаться под MPL. Если добавить — ограничений нет.

    Также стоит добавить в проекта файл LICENSE с текстом лицензии.

    Это верно для всех лицензий, а не только для одной.

    По просьбе kidar2 добавляю лицензию EPL. Это копилефтная лицензия, но она не совместима с GNU GPL.

    И поэтому бесполезна чуть менее, чем полностью. Копилефтная лицензия должна быть одна (или совместимое семейство), иначе копилефтность создаёт слишком много проблем. Даже из-за несовместимости GPLv2 и GPLv3 куча проблем, вплоть до переписывания проектов.

    И вполне подходит для небольших проектов.

    Очень смешно звучит подобное ограничение в свете большого количества крупных проектов под MIT.

    когда вам необходима разрешительная лицензия

    Тема сисек не раскрыта. Вы так и не объяснили, в чём профит от пермиссивных лицензий.

    BSD

    Забыли про деление на 2-clause и 3-clause (есть не только старая 4-clause).

    WTFPL Version 2

    В тексте этой «лицензии» больше мусора про правила использования лицензии, чем слов по сути. Я использую модификацию без хлама.

    Вследствие подобных нюансов, появились лицензии подобные следующей.

    Ещё Unlicense есть. Для прагматичных минималистов. CC0 тоже не все любят.
    • +1
      Тема не раскрыта. Весьма поверхностно. Как выбирать — непонятно.

      Вы имеете полное право поставить статье минус. А за конструктивную часть критики — спасибо.

      LGPL — это надстройка над GPL, и требует ее наличия в проекте.

      Чего-чего требует?

      Поправил, спасибо.

      В лицензии это не оговорено. Различия между динамической и статической линковкой — это фантазии FSF, которые не были обоснованы в суде. Есть альтернативные мнения, в том числе мнение Линуса.

      Поправил.

      Лицензией MPL заражаются файлы, а не проекты, в отличие от (L)GPL. Если изменить файл, он должен остаться под MPL. Если добавить — ограничений нет.

      Добавил в описание.

      Также стоит добавить в проекта файл LICENSE с текстом лицензии.

      И мной это явно указано для всех лицензий, кроме тех, где я даю внешний линк на инстуркцию по их применению.

      И вполне подходит для небольших проектов.

      Очень смешно звучит подобное ограничение в свете большого количества крупных проектов под MIT.

      Поправил.

      Забыли про деление на 2-clause и 3-clause (есть не только старая 4-clause).

      Добавил в статью упоминание 2-clause BSD.

      Ещё Unlicense есть. Для прагматичных минималистов. CC0 тоже не все любят.

      Добавил Unlicense, спасибо. Но, она таки проблемна.

      По остальной части Вашего комментария. Я так понял, что Вы не любите копилефтные лицензии, и любите разрешительные. Это Ваше право. В статье я не ставил перед собой задачи пропагандировать те или иные лицензии. Каждый может выбрать сам, что ему больше подходит. Для этого я привел список наиболее известных лицензий (и добавил к ним озвученные в комментариях) и постарался кратко описать, какие требования они накладывают, как их применять и какие проблемы с ними существуют.

      И, Ваш комментарий я не минусовал.
  • +1
    Было бы неплохо, если бы кто-нибудь еще расписал механику работы с контрибьюторами, про передачу прав, цифровое подписание соглашений и прочее, может отдельным топиком… :)
  • 0
    JFYI есть забавная лицензия JSON, которая признана несовместимой с GPL и считается «несвободной». Реально же она лишь запрещает использовать ПО в плохих целях:

    The Software shall be used for Good, not Evil.


    (AFAIR у автора были проблемы с распространением модлей json для python по этому поводу.)

    Относительно beerware, как заметил один мой коллега, существуют трудности реализацией «купить пива при встрече». Т.е. допустим один из вариантов проблемы, я сказал что куплю чуваку пива, а при случайной встрече не признал его =)
    • 0
      Относительно beerware, как заметил один мой коллега, существуют трудности реализацией «купить пива при встрече». Т.е. допустим один из вариантов проблемы, я сказал что куплю чуваку пива, а при случайной встрече не признал его =)

      Кажется, это не относится к beerware. Так говорили в общем случае о подобных лицензиях и есть подозрение, что случаев было достаточно, так как мне встречалось обсуждение «при встрече» несколько раз в иных статьях о лицензиях. Тут по тексту «can», так что это опционально и ни к чему не должно обязывать.
    • 0
      Чтобы было понятно, чем плоха лицензия JSON, попробуйте дать определение Добру и Злу.
  • +1
    свободные — с целью предоставить возможность безвозмездно пользоваться плодами вашего труда

    В случае копилефт лицензий это не совсем так. Основная задача таких лицензий не просто «предоставить возможность безвозмездно пользоваться», а именно поощрять вклад. Т.е. это не просто «пожертвование во благо общества», как CC0 или даже BSD/MIT, но об этом забывают/упускают/не упоминают.
  • 0
    Ещё boost и Zlib, тоже очень-очень разрешающие :)
  • +1
    Не до конца понятно, зачем вообще прилагать к коду текст лицензии. Какие могут быть последствия, если не указывать лицензию?
    • +1
      Очевидно, двоякая трактовка.
      • 0
        Ваш комментарий ничего не проясняет. Двоякая — между чем и чем?
    • 0
      Для Вас, если Вы выложили код: с вероятностью близкой к единице — никаких. Для того, кто воспользуется Вашим кодом — самые любые. Иначе говоря, если Вы выложили некий код в публичный доступ без лицензии, то кто-либо другой не имеет прав им пользоваться, так как Вы ему эти права никаким образом не предоставили. А раз прав у него нет, то он нарушит закон, если использует этот код. За что и могут быть последствия. Поэтому, в общем случае, кодом без лицензии пользоваться не будут, исключая тех, кому закон это разрешает (fair use в США) или тех, кто не следует закону по разным причинам (преступники, спецслужбы, ну или там дети и другие люди, не знакомые с авторским правом и тп).
      • 0
        Спасибо, теперь всё понятно. Не очевидно, что то, что находится в открытом доступе, по умолчанию запрещено к использованию.
        • 0
          Это-то как раз вполне очевидно: куча сорцов, от Windows NT до «сталкера», вполне себе в открытом доступе (т.е. вам ничего не мешает их найти и скачать), но вот как-то легально использовать их может быть проблематично.
  • +1
    Кроме того, существует и двухпунктовая лицензия BSD, [...] и эта версия практически совпадает по функциональности с лицензией MIT. GNU советуют вместо лицензии BSD использовать MIT, чтобы исключить путаницу с тем, какая именно версия лицензии BSD используется.
    Мне всегда казалось странным, когда MIT фактически приравнивают к 2-clause BSD, и тем более такая позиция GNU/FSF. MIT разрешает sublicense (а не только redistribution and use) и не требует явно указывать авторские права в сорцах и бинарниках. В некотором приближении MIT можно считать 0-clause BSD с возможностью перелицензирования, но все-таки достаточно отличающейся от BSD лицензией.
    • 0
      Насчет sublicense сломано много копий и в англоязычной части интернета. После беглого гугления я нашел три варианта трактовки:
      — да, можно перевыпускать чужой код под MIT и под другими лицензиями,
      — да, как бы можно, но лицензия требует сохранять ее текст, а, следовательно, можно только добавлять дополнительные ограничения к ней, но никак не подменять ее полностью,
      — нет, нельзя, это просто означает, что Вы имеете право передавать код далее под той же лицензией со всеми правами, полученными по ней.

      Мне видится наиболее близким к действительности второй вариант. А это означает, что MIT не так уж сильно и отличается от BSD, ввиду чего их и считают практически идентичными даже юристы из GNU.
      • 0
        С юристами GNU, конечно, сложно спорить; у меня нет причин сомневаться их компетентности.

        И тем не менее: описанная вами вторая трактовка кажется вполне корректной, но мне все-таки непонятно, как MIT защищает продукт (код) от перелицензирования под лицензией, которая с одной стороны 1) соблюдает условия MIT, т.е. указывает оригинальный copyright; 2) явно разрешает (или даже требует) дальнейшее использование оного без указания копирайта вообще (см. мой комментарий выше).

        Единственное явное ограничение MIT — [t]he above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software — ничего не говорит о том, что их необходимо сохранять «по всей цепочке».
        • 0
          Ну вот, в цитате же и написано:
          and this permission notice
          То есть, требуется копировать не только строчку с копирайтом, но и текст лицензии до waiver'а внизу (это где заглавными буквами про отказ от ответственности). А это значит, что тот же набор требований окажется и в следующих «звеньях цепочки», по Вашей терминологии.
          • 0
            Смотрите, я взял код MIT и пишу:
            Copyright 2015 Original Copyright Holders (hey guys, thanks for MIT!)
            Permission is hereby granted, [...]
            The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
            [ MY COOL LICENSE NAME ]
            Permission is hereby granted to do whatever you want: I've relicensed it, it's allowed per the above note.
            Или так не получится?
            • 0
              Скорее всего — нет. А так, как Вы написали — точно нет.

              Во-первых, то, что там под тремя точками скрывается, оно должно быть явно текстом прописано, так, как этого требует лицензия.

              Во-вторых, и это основное, как раз этот отсутствующий кусок и не дает Вам возможности написать to do whatever you want, так как в таком случае Вы пытаетесь дать кому-то больше прав, чем у Вас есть — в этой скрытой части текста они все перечислены, как и ограничения, при которых у Вас есть эти права.

              В-третьих, не relicensed, а sublicensed. Если relicensed — то это как бы уже явно нарушение лицензии, так как такого права Вам не давали.

              Ну и, в четвертых: значение глагола to sublicense трактуется по-разному даже англоязычными людьми. Тут нужно американских юристов спрашивать.
  • 0
    Кстати насчет sublicensed vs. relicensed верное замечание; возможно, в этом все и дело. (Троеточия, конечно же, использовались лишь с целью укоротить комментарий до сути.)

    Извините, что ответил не в ту ветку. :-(

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